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Analysis of European Constitutional Treaty draft
Demopunk Net. September 2003


Introduction

The European Constituent Process


The constitutional draft


European institutions


Democracy in the EU


Europhiles and europhobes


Whole text of constitutional draft (July/2003)



Introduction

Present document is part of Demopunk Net's watching of the European Constituent Process. In November 2002 a first document "Criticism to European Constituent Process" was published, and in March 2003 the report  "The European Constituent Process. The Spanish Perspective" was submited to the IRI-Europe.

Release of the first official draft of the European Constitutional Treaty provokes the need of this new document; taking on the duty to inform democrat people about the severe democratic deficit that is formalized by the constitutional draft. Faced with the evidence that Regime and its propaganda media are indoctrinating people with a triumphalist and non-critic image, Demopunk Net releases present analysis to argue, using the own constitutional draft, the acute lack of political freedoms and the deep autocratic nature of the European Regime.

To make readers easier their own activity of analysis, at the end of this report can be found the whole text of the constitutional draft, where every reference is linked.



The European Constituent Process

When in December 2002 european elites stated the so-called Declaration of Laeken, indifference of people was eloquent. No emotion was sparked by creation of the large Convention on the Future of Europe, despite of its aims mutated early into writting a constitutional draft for Europe.

Democrat people witnessed how the birth of a constituent process was staged lacking the least sovereign legitimacy. Nations appointed its constitutional paladins, and the European Parliament sent a small representation. Elected deputies of the European Parliament, accustomed to lack legislative initiative (or perhaps bounded by the imperative mandate that links them to electoral lists written by their elites) did not rise up collectively before the germination of a non-elected assembly, that was taken on functions typical of an elected parliament. A proper example of constituent process.

It is hardly surprising that works of the Convention passed almost anonymous. Likely, not even one out of every thousand europeans knew about so "transcendental" activity, a fact that statistic services of Regime could have verified. Neither them nor propaganda media accomplished the least monitoring, until a few months ago curtains began to be removed uncovering the work almost finished. The constitutional artisans applied finishing touchs, while here -in Spain- press of fascist tradition focused its constitutional "analysis" on supporting claims of Vatican to incorporate cristian tradition within the preamble. Popular emotion due to so historical happening was short-lived, may be it never happened. And the Convention was ended surrounded by the same indifference than when it was instituted.

Indeed the constitutional draft does not contribute any significative improvement that can be appreciated by democrat people. Quite the opposite, it protocolizes the autocracy that has been built in Europe, treaty after treaty. An autocracy that, according data from European Institute for the Initiative and Referendum IRI-Europe, drives by several ways more than 60% of normative in every member state.

European democrat activism, participated by the IRI-Europe among others, set a quite modest goals focused on achieving constitutional draft were ratified on paneuropean binding referendum, goal that eventually was reduced to achieve ratification using national legislation of every member state. Some elites gladly have accepted this minimum claim, perceiving political polish that can be applied to a constitutional text empty of Political Freedoms, a text that paradoxically bans the own paneuropean referendum, by mere omission. The President of spanish government was in favour to exercise his personal right (no spanish institution has got it) to hold a consultive plebiscite on the constitutional draft. Remembering the thankless plebiscite on civil integration into the NATO, we hope boredly to see in Spain something like an Eurovision festival.


The constitutional draft

Almost everybody start analysis of the huge constitutional text holding a certain expectation to find out moderate improvements, at least in the institutional level. Soon, evidencia makes expectation into irritation. The sole significative novelty consists on European Parliament ratifies the appointment of President of European Comission by the European Council, as well as the motion of censure. The constitutional text does not contribute any Political Freedom to people, puts the unique elected institution (European Parliament) into a severe weakness, states imprecisely the electoral system used to constitute it (as if every electoral system were equal!), grants the efective power to the Council of Ministers and the European Comission, institutes discretionaryly many functions (including the judicial one) without parliamentary ratification and states a pathetic procedure of constitutional amendment. Everything at many levels of indirection from popular soverignty. Autocracy.

Member states have stabilized self-proclaimed democratic regimes, where Public Freedoms are staged while Political Freedoms are banned or severely controlled; regimes that will be qualified by History as pre-democracies. But the conglomerate instituted by the european constitutional text is an AUTOCRACY, an evolved form of tyranny that replaces Force by Deception. Something that democrat people have to fight.

From other points of view, this text becomes into the first constitution stating as own capitalist principles ruling the so-called globalization, and protocolizes the militar alliance with the USA. With so high and universal aims, irritation lands softly on the usual melancholy when on the other side the Article III-283 states incompetent the brand-new Court of Justice "to review the validity or proportionality of operations carried out by the police or other law-enforcement services of a Member State or the exercise of the responsibilities incumbent upon Member States with regard to the maintenance of law and order and the safeguarding of internal security", or when the Article III-22 allows freedom of establishment only for "self-employed persons", or when the Article III-27 accepts only the mutual recognition of companies and associations "save for those which are non-profit-making". Or when this quite long constitutional text, with vocation for interventionism, considers out of EU scope "pay, the right of association, the right to strike or the right to impose lock-outs"  (seemingly this Article III-104.6 have not deserved a strongly response of unions of the Regime), o when the Article III-342.1 states that "the Constitution shall not preclude [] the production of or trade in arms, munitions and war material". What not? ... melancholy.


The european institutions

The constitutional draft consolidates present status of institutional relations of the european autocracy. Some institutions has not any relation with popular soverignty, some ones are placed at several level of indirection from it, and only the European Parliament (EP) is directly elected keeping for it a rachitic role. Let us take a brief revision.

In the apex of the autocracy are the European Council, a sort of Standing Committee of Treaty of Versailles. Spanish representative is the monarch, although by complex and unknown reasons he delegates to President of Government. The Council appoints the President of European Commision who noveltyly is ratified by the EP. It keeps for itself the initiative to the constitutional amendment, the main decisions on foreign and security issues, and even legislative capacity in special procedures.

The so-named Council of Ministers (CM) is a polymorphic institution whose members are variable, appointed discretionaryly by governments (in Spain without parliamentary ratification). It is the transmission chain of the national executive powers, a kind of travelling executive power. It has got huge powers, particularly in the legislative scope. Its popular representation is to be disintered at several levels of indirection.

The most stable executive function is accomplished by the so-called European Comission (EC). It is in charge to elaborate laws and regulations (many of them are mandatory), to execute resolutions and to inspect. It has got the juridical representation of the EU before member states and the rest of the world. But perhaps its most impressive power is to have got THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT OF LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVE. It should be thought about twice to assimilate it. Its President is appointed by the mentioned procedure, and he or she appoints the commissioners of EU by a rotating schedule among proposal of the government of the moment; of course without parliamentary ratification.

Other institutions in the constitutional draft are the European Central Bank, and the highest judicial institutions: the European Court of Justice that taking in the role of constitutional court and the High Court. Their members are appointed discretionaryly by governments without parliamentary ratification (AI-28.2, AIII-84.2). Shocking.

The large Economic and Social Committe and the Committe of the Regions are instituted (350 members every one). For the last one, every fickleness are deactivated banning its members could belong simultaneously to the EP (AIII-292). Their consultive nature turns them into mere sinks of expenses. The European Ombudsman maintains the same ineffectiveness and pretty name than at the national scope.

The EP is the unique elected institution of the European Regime. As novelty, it ratifies the appointment of the President of the EC decided by the European Council (AI26.1, AI-19.1) and can exercise the motion of censura collectively on it (AI-25.5, AIII-243), that cannot be exercised individually on its members. Initiative of this motion of censura is not regulated. The EP is elected by universal suffrage by means of an electoral system constitutionally unprotected (AI-19.2, AIII-232.1), as if all the electoral systems were the same! In Spain we go on electing european deputies by close lists of party, written discretionaryly by elites of parties. A real democratic display.

Legislative function of the EP has implausible lacks. It lacks legislative initiative that is reserved as exclusive right of the EC. But besides it shares the ordinary legislative procedure with the CM (AI-33.1, AIII-302), in such a way as a law cannot by passed without authorization of both institutions. This incredible parity is not precisely simetric, because the CM approves alone the Pleiades of regulations and european decisions (AIII-334), "minor" legislation many times with mandatory nature. Reading of such a institutional role deserves a pause to assimilate its repercussions.

The rachitic institutional role of the EP puts it almost as a "puppet" institution, whose main fuction is to stage popular soverignty within the european autocracy. This role can be more clearly displayed listing what can NOT be done by the EP:

This non-exhaustive list about incompetence of the EP reflects a significative part of functions that the constitutional draft keeps for other non-elected institutions (CM and EC), placed at several levels of indirection from popular soverignty. But perhaps, one of the incompetences provoking the bigger alarm among democrat people is the procedure of constitutional amendment. The EP is only consulted, the initiative is owned by the European Council and is approved by an Intergovernmental Conference, AIV-7.

In a last institutional note, it would be worth pointing the minimum role reserved to elected national parliaments which do no exceed the category of institutions with right to be informed, according to a protocol attached to the constitutional treaty.


Democracy in the EU

Talking about democracy in the EU is necessarily short. Previoulsy, we have pointed out constitutional deprotection of representative democracy; it would be worth adding that no control about present problems of political parties are tackled, which are announced at european level in the articles AI-45.4 y AIII-233. For the constitutional draft, political parties are institutions so mature and  lacking in problems that they deserve only a short wording of acknowledge. Shocking.

In the scope of Direct Democracy the scene is more cheerless than within the own spanish constitution. There is only a form of colective legislative petition before the European Comission (AI-46.4) that does not lead to binding referendum and another signficative aspects are not regulated. Here the "huge" effort of the Convention to close the EU near to society finishs.

By omission, all the other forms of popular initiative are banned, as the initiative for ratification of laws and treaties, abrogation of laws and recalling of official posts (formally, our democrat champions have made us envious of present venezolan constitution which recognize such Political Freedoms). Binding referendum, and even consultative plebiscite, are banned. Other modern political freedoms as the Participative Budget are likely unknow for many of the constitutional fathers; concepts as self-management or popular subsidiarity are strange at all within this constitution.

Of course constitutional amendment and beginning of constituent processes are so far away from popular initiative than in the spanish regime, or they were in the soviet regime. That is, they are banned. Popular control of war and peace is a mad utopia.

In general, lovers of collecting of hollow nonsenses find quite attractive the Title VI "The democract life of the Union" (sic). As well as the right of petition which is regulated before the EP, but not before the institutions with effective power, AII-44.

Summing up, in the european constitution we witness creation of a political structure where the "parliamentary democracy" (the first step of the democratic development) are reduced to a scandalous entelechy, to a mere attrezzo which is pretended to show appearance of reality while hidding its real nature: simple scenery. We are not witnessing the birth of a democratic organization, but may be a new model of political organization: an out-and-out "empire-style autocracy".


Europhiles and europhobes

Propaganda media and academic circles of Regime hide from society the birth, or perhaps it would be more precise to say the fossilization, of the european autocracy; taking a severe and unpunished political responsability. Meanwhile democrat people with access to information keep alarmed without possibility to get structured. In Spain political opposition to lack of democracy within the European Union is almost residual (for instance, OtraDemocraciaEsPosible.Net), there is rather social-style opposition.

Historically european integration has been criticized from social and monetary perspectives. Criticisms that propaganda media of the Regime have spread (by means of passionate procedures rather than rational ones) as differences among europhiles and europhobics. Today we must add the alarming political breaking of an autocracy which is easily mutable into tyranny. A modern and evolved form of tyranny based on Deception, and keeping in reserve Force when needed.

Situation is quite worrying. Europhile democrat people, who estimate essential virtues of an united Europe, cannot go on allowing Regime uses them as human shield to stabilize its autocracy. Europhiles and europhobes, european democrats, has today a common goal: to combat and abort the european autocracy.




Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Julio 2003

PART I

TITLE I: DEFINITION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNION

Article 1: Establishment of the Union
1.
Reflecting the will of the citizens and States of Europe to build a common future, this
Constitution establishes the European Union, on which the Member States confer
competences to attain objectives they have in common. The Union shall coordinate the
policies by which the Member States aim to achieve these objectives, and shall exercise in the
Community way the competences they confer on it.
2.
The Union shall be open to all European States which respect its values and are committed to
promoting them together.
Article 2: The Union's values
The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, the
rule of law and respect for human rights. These values are common to the Member States in a
society of pluralism, tolerance, justice, solidarity and non-discrimination.

Article 3: The Union's objectives
1.
The Union's aim is to promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples.
2.
The Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal
frontiers, and a single market where competition is free and undistorted.
3.
The Union shall work for the sustainable development of Europe based on balanced
economic growth, a social market economy, highly competitive and aiming at full
employment and social progress, and with a high level of protection and improvement of the
quality of the environment. It shall promote scientific and technological advance.
It shall combat social exclusion and discrimination, and shall promote social justice and
protection, equality between women and men, solidarity between generations and protection
of children's rights.
It shall promote economic, social and territorial cohesion, and solidarity among
Member States.
The Union shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and shall ensure that Europe's
cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced.
4.
In its relations with the wider world, the Union shall uphold and promote its values and
interests. It shall contribute to peace, security, the sustainable development of the earth,
solidarity and mutual respect among peoples, free and fair trade, eradication of poverty and
protection of human rights and in particular children's rights, as well as to strict observance
and development of international law, including respect for the principles of the
United Nations Charter.
5.
These objectives shall be pursued by appropriate means, depending on the extent to which the
relevant competences are attributed to the Union in the Constitution.

Article 4: Fundamental freedoms and non-discrimination
1.
Free movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and freedom of establishment shall be
guaranteed within and by the Union, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
2.
In the field of application of the Constitution, and without prejudice to any of its specific
provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.
Article 5: Relations between the Union and the Member States
1.
The Union shall respect the national identities of the Member States, inherent in their
fundamental structures, political and constitutional, inclusive of regional and local
self-government. It shall respect their essential State functions, including those for ensuring
the territorial integrity of the State, and for maintaining law and order and safeguarding
internal security.
2.
Following the principle of loyal cooperation, the Union and the Member States shall, in full
mutual respect, assist each other in carrying out tasks which flow from the Constitution.
The Member States shall facilitate the achievement of the Union's tasks and refrain from any
measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the objectives set out in the Constitution.

Article 6: Legal personality
The Union shall have legal personality.

TITLE II: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND CITIZENSHIP OF THE UNION
Article 7: Fundamental rights
1.
The Union shall recognise the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of
Fundamental Rights which constitutes Part II of the Constitution.
2.
The Union shall seek accession to the European Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Such accession shall not affect the Union's
competences as defined in the Constitution.
3.
Fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and as they result from the constitutional
traditions common to the Member States, shall constitute general principles of the
Union's law.

Article 8: Citizenship of the Union
1.
Every national of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union
shall be additional to national citizenship; it shall not replace it.
2.
Citizens of the Union shall enjoy the rights and be subject to the duties provided for in the
Constitution. They shall have:
­
the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States;
­
the right to vote and to stand as candidates in elections to the European Parliament and
in municipal elections in their Member State of residence, under the same conditions as
nationals of that State;

­
the right to enjoy, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which
they are nationals is not represented, the protection of the diplomatic and consular
authorities of any Member State on the same conditions as the nationals of that State;
­
the right to petition the European Parliament, to apply to the European Ombudsman,
and to address the Institutions and advisory bodies of the Union in any of the
Constitution's languages and to obtain a reply in the same language.
3.
These rights shall be exercised in accordance with the conditions and limits defined by the
Constitution and by the measures adopted to give it effect.

TITLE III: UNION COMPETENCES
Article 9: Fundamental principles
1.
The limits of Union competences are governed by the principle of conferral. The use of
Union competences is governed by the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality.
2.
Under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act within the limits of the competences
conferred upon it by the Member States in the Constitution to attain the objectives set out in
the Constitution. Competences not conferred upon the Union in the Constitution remain with
the Member States.
3.
Under the principle of subsidiarity, in areas which do not fall within its exclusive competence
the Union shall act only if and insofar as the objectives of the intended action cannot be
sufficiently achieved by the Member States, either at central level or at regional and local
level, but can rather, by reason of the scale or effects of the proposed action, be better
achieved at Union level.

The Union Institutions shall apply the principle of subsidiarity as laid down in the Protocol
on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, annexed to the
Constitution. National Parliaments shall ensure compliance with that principle in accordance
with the procedure set out in the Protocol.
4.
Under the principle of proportionality, the content and form of Union action shall not exceed
what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Constitution.
The Institutions shall apply the principle of proportionality as laid down in the Protocol
referred to in paragraph 3.

Article 10: Union law
1.
The Constitution, and law adopted by the Union's Institutions in exercising competences
conferred on it, shall have primacy over the law of the Member States.
2.
Member States shall take all appropriate measures, general or particular, to ensure fulfilment
of the obligations flowing from the Constitution or resulting from the Union Institutions' acts.

Article 11: Categories of competence
1.
When the Constitution confers on the Union exclusive competence in a specific area, only the
Union may legislate and adopt legally binding acts, the Member States being able to do so
themselves only if so empowered by the Union or for the implementation of acts adopted by
the Union.
2.
When the Constitution confers on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a
specific area, the Union and the Member States shall have the power to legislate and adopt
legally binding acts in that area. The Member States shall exercise their competence to the
extent that the Union has not exercised, or has decided to cease exercising, its competence.
3.
The Union shall have competence to promote and coordinate the economic and employment
policies of the Member States.
4.
The Union shall have competence to define and implement a common foreign and security
policy, including the progressive framing of a common defence policy.
5.
In certain areas and in the conditions laid down in the Constitution, the Union shall have
competence to carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement the actions of the
Member States, without thereby superseding their competence in these areas.
6.
The scope of and arrangements for exercising the Union's competences shall be determined
by the provisions specific to each area in Part III.

Article 12: Exclusive competence
1.
The Union shall have exclusive competence to establish the competition rules necessary for
the functioning of the internal market, and in the following areas:
­
monetary policy, for the Member States which have adopted the euro,
­
common commercial policy,
­
customs union,
­
the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fisheries policy.

2.
The Union shall have exclusive competence for the conclusion of an international agreement
when its conclusion is provided for in a legislative act of the Union, is necessary to enable it
to exercise its internal competence, or affects an internal Union act.

Article 13: Areas of shared competence
1.
The Union shall share competence with the Member States where the Constitution confers on
it a competence which does not relate to the areas referred to in Articles 12 and 16.
2.
Shared competence applies in the following principal areas:
­
internal market,
­
area of freedom, security and justice,
­
agriculture and fisheries, excluding the conservation of marine biological resources,
­
transport and trans-European networks,
­
energy,
­
social policy, for aspects defined in Part III,
­
economic, social and territorial cohesion,
­
environment,
­
consumer protection,
­
common safety concerns in public health matters.
3.
In the areas of research, technological development and space, the Union shall have
competence to carry out actions, in particular to define and implement programmes; however,
the exercise of that competence may not result in Member States being prevented from
exercising theirs.
4.
In the areas of development cooperation and humanitarian aid, the Union shall have
competence to take action and conduct a common policy; however, the exercise of that
competence may not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs.

Article 14: The coordination of economic and employment policies
1.
The Union shall adopt measures to ensure coordination of the economic policies of the
Member States, in particular by adopting broad guidelines for these policies. The Member
States shall coordinate their economic policies within the Union.
2.
Specific provisions shall apply to those Member States which have adopted the euro.
3.
The Union shall adopt measures to ensure coordination of the employment policies of the
Member States, in particular by adopting guidelines for these policies.
4.
The Union may adopt initiatives to ensure coordination of Member States' social policies.

Article 15: The common foreign and security policy
1.
The Union's competence in matters of common foreign and security policy shall cover all
areas of foreign policy and all questions relating to the Union's security, including the
progressive framing of a common defence policy, which might lead to a common defence.
2.
Member States shall actively and unreservedly support the Union's common foreign and
security policy in a spirit of loyalty and mutual solidarity and shall comply with the acts
adopted by the Union in this area. They shall refrain from action contrary to the Union's
interests or likely to impair its effectiveness.

Article 16: Areas of supporting, coordinating or complementary action
1.
The Union may take supporting, coordinating or complementary action.
2.
The areas for supporting, coordinating or complementary action shall be, at European level:
­
industry,
­
protection and improvement of human health,
­
education, vocational training, youth and sport,
­
culture,
­
civil protection.
3.
Legally binding acts adopted by the Union on the basis of the provisions specific to these
areas in Part III may not entail harmonisation of Member States' laws or regulations.

Article 17: Flexibility clause
1.
If action by the Union should prove necessary within the framework of the policies defined in
Part III to attain one of the objectives set by the Constitution, and the Constitution has not
provided the necessary powers, the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously on a proposal
from the Commission and after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, shall take
the appropriate measures.
2.
Using the procedure for monitoring the subsidiarity principle referred to in Article 9(3),
the Commission shall draw Member States' national Parliaments' attention to proposals based
on this Article.
3.
Provisions adopted on the basis of this Article may not entail harmonisation of
Member States' laws or regulations in cases where the Constitution excludes such
harmonisation.

TITLE IV: THE UNION'S INSTITUTIONS

Chapter I ­ The institutional framework

Article 18: The Union's Institutions
1.
The Union shall be served by a single institutional framework which shall aim to:
­
advance the objectives of the Union,
­
promote the values of the Union,
­
serve the interests of the Union, its citizens and its Member States,
and ensure the consistency, effectiveness and continuity of the policies and actions which it
undertakes in pursuit of its objectives.
2.
This institutional framework comprises:
The European Parliament,
The European Council,
The Council of Ministers,
The European Commission,
The Court of Justice.
3.
Each Institution shall act within the limits of the powers conferred on it in the Constitution,
and in conformity with the procedures and conditions set out in it. The Institutions shall
practice full mutual cooperation.

Article 19: The European Parliament
1.
The European Parliament shall, jointly with the Council of Ministers, enact legislation, and
exercise the budgetary function, as well as functions of political control and consultation as
laid down in the Constitution. It shall elect the President of the European Commission.
2.
The European Parliament shall be elected by direct universal suffrage of European citizens in
free and secret ballot for a term of five years. Its members shall not exceed seven hundred
and thirty-six in number. Representation of European citizens shall be degressively
proportional, with a minimum threshold of four members per Member State.
Sufficiently in advance of the European Parliamentary elections in 2009, and, as necessary
thereafter for further elections, the European Council shall adopt by unanimity, on the basis of
a proposal from the European Parliament and with its consent, a decision establishing the
composition of the European Parliament, respecting the principles set out above.
3.
The European Parliament shall elect its President and its officers from among its members.

Article 20: The European Council
1.
The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its
development, and shall define its general political directions and priorities. It does not
exercise legislative functions.
2.
The European Council shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Member
States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The Union Minister
for Foreign Affairs shall take part in its work.
3.
The European Council shall meet quarterly, convened by its President. When the agenda so
requires, its members may decide to be assisted by a minister and, in the case of the
President of the Commission, a European Commissioner. When the situation so requires,
the President shall convene a special meeting of the European Council.
4.
Except where the Constitution provides otherwise, decisions of the European Council shall be
taken by consensus.

Article 21: The European Council Chair
1.
The European Council shall elect its President, by qualified majority, for a term of two and a
half years, renewable once. In the event of an impediment or serious misconduct, the
European Council can end his or her mandate according to the same procedure.
2.
The President of the European Council:
­
shall chair it and drive forward its work,
­
shall ensure its proper preparation and continuity in cooperation with the President of
the Commission, and on the basis of the work of the General Affairs Council,
­
shall endeavour to facilitate cohesion and consensus within the European Council,
­
shall present a report to the European Parliament after each of its meetings.
The President of the European Council shall at his or her level and in that capacity ensure
the external representation of the Union on issues concerning its common foreign and security
policy, without prejudice to the responsibilities of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.
3.
The President of the European Council may not hold a national mandate.

Article 22: The Council of Ministers
1.
The Council of Ministers shall, jointly with the European Parliament, enact legislation,
exercise the budgetary function and carry out policy-making and coordinating functions, as
laid down in the Constitution.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall consist of a representative of each Member State at ministerial
level for each of its formations. Only this representative may commit the Member State in
question and cast its vote.
3.
Except where the Constitution provides otherwise, decisions of the Council of Ministers shall
be taken by qualified majority.

Article 23: Formations of the Council of Ministers
1.
The Legislative and General Affairs Council shall ensure consistency in the work of the
Council of Ministers.
When it acts in its General Affairs function, it shall, in liaison with the Commission, prepare,
and ensure follow-up to, meetings of the European Council.
When it acts in its legislative function, the Council of Ministers shall consider and, jointly
with the European Parliament, enact European laws and European framework laws, in
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. In this function, each Member State's
representation shall include one or two representatives at ministerial level with relevant
expertise, reflecting the business on the agenda of the Council of Ministers.
2.
The Foreign Affairs Council shall, on the basis of strategic guidelines laid down by the
European Council, flesh out the Union's external policies, and ensure that its actions are
consistent. It shall be chaired by the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.
3.
The European Council shall adopt a European decision establishing further formations in
which the Council of Ministers may meet.
4.
The Presidency of Council of Ministers formations, other than that of Foreign Affairs, shall be
held by Member State representatives within the Council of Ministers on the basis of equal
rotation for periods of at least a year. The European Council shall adopt a European decision
establishing the rules of such rotation, taking into account European political and
geographical balance and the diversity of Member States.

Article 24: Qualified majority
1.
When the European Council or the Council of Ministers takes decisions by qualified majority,
such a majority shall consist of the majority of Member States, representing at least
three fifths of the population of the Union.
2.
When the Constitution does not require the European Council or the Council of Ministers to
act on the basis of a proposal of the Commission, or when the European Council or the
Council of Ministers is not acting on the initiative of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs,
the required qualified majority shall consist of two thirds of the Member States, representing
at least three fifths of the population of the Union.
3.
The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall take effect on 1 November 2009, after the
European Parliament elections have taken place, according to the provisions of Article 19.
4.
Where the Constitution provides in Part III for European laws and framework laws to be
adopted by the Council of Ministers according to a special legislative procedure, the
European Council can adopt, on its own initiative and by unanimity, after a period of
consideration of at least six months, a decision allowing for the adoption of such
European laws or framework laws according to the ordinary legislative procedure.
The European Council shall act after consulting the European Parliament and informing
the national Parliaments.

Where the Constitution provides in Part III for the Council of Ministers to act unanimously in
a given area, the European Council can adopt, on its own initiative and by unanimity, a
European decision allowing the Council of Ministers to act by qualified majority in that area.
Any initiative taken by the European Council under this subparagraph shall be sent to national
Parliaments no less than four months before any decision is taken on it.
5.
Within the European Council, its President and the President of the Commission do not vote.

Article 25: The European Commission

1.
The European Commission shall promote the general European interest and take appropriate
initiatives to that end. It shall ensure the application of the Constitution, and steps taken by
the Institutions under the Constitution. It shall oversee the application of Union law under the
control of the Court of Justice. It shall execute the budget and manage programmes. It shall
exercise coordinating, executive and management functions, as laid down in the Constitution.
With the exception of the common foreign and security policy, and other cases provided for in
the Constitution, it shall ensure the Union's external representation. It shall initiate the
Union's annual and multiannual programming with a view to achieving interinstitutional
agreements.
2.
Except where the Constitution provides otherwise, Union legislative acts can be adopted only
on the basis of a Commission proposal. Other acts are adopted on the basis of a Commission
proposal where the Constitution so provides.
3.
The Commission shall consist of a College comprising its President, the Union Minister of
Foreign Affairs/Vice-President, and thirteen European Commissioners selected on the basis of
a system of equal rotation between the Member States. This system shall be established by a
European decision adopted by the European Council on the basis of the following principles:
(a)
Member States shall be treated on a strictly equal footing as regards determination of
the sequence of, and the time spent by, their nationals as Members of the College;
consequently, the difference between the total number of terms of office held by
nationals of any given pair of Member States may never be more than one;
(b)
subject to point (a), each successive College shall be so composed as to reflect
satisfactorily the demographic and geographical range of all the Member States of
the Union.
The Commission President shall appoint non-voting Commissioners, chosen according to the
same criteria as apply for Members of the College and coming from all other Member States.
These arrangements shall take effect on 1 November 2009.
4.
In carrying out its responsibilities, the Commission shall be completely independent. In the
discharge of their duties, the European Commissioners and Commissioners shall neither seek
nor take instructions from any government or other body.
5.
The Commission, as a College, shall be responsible to the European Parliament.
The Commission President shall be responsible to the European Parliament for the activities
of the Commissioners. Under the procedures set out in Article III-243, the European
Parliament may pass a censure motion on the Commission. If such a motion is passed,
the European Commissioners and Commissioners must all resign. The Commission shall
continue to handle everyday business until a new College is nominated.

Article 26: The President of the European Commission
1.
Taking into account the elections to the European Parliament and after appropriate
consultations, the European Council, deciding by qualified majority, shall put to the
European Parliament its proposed candidate for the Presidency of the Commission. This
candidate shall be elected by the European Parliament by a majority of its members. If this
candidate does not receive the required majority support, the European Council shall within
one month propose a new candidate to the European Parliament, following the same
procedure.
2.
Each Member State determined by the system of rotation shall establish a list of three persons,
in which both genders shall be represented, whom it considers qualified to be a European
Commissioner. By choosing one person from each of the proposed lists, the President-elect
shall select the thirteen European Commissioners for their competence, European
commitment, and guaranteed independence. The President and the persons so nominated for
membership of the College, including the future Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, as well
as the persons nominated as non-voting Commissioners, shall be submitted collectively to a
vote of approval by the European Parliament. The Commission's term of office shall be
five years.
3. President of the Commission shall:
­
lay down guidelines within which the Commission is to work;
­
decide its internal organisation, ensuring that it acts consistently, efficiently and on a
collegiate basis;
­
appoint Vice-Presidents from among the members of the College.
A European Commissioner or Commissioner shall resign if the President so requests.

Article 27: The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs
1.
The European Council, acting by qualified majority, with the agreement of the President of
the Commission, shall appoint the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs. He or she shall
conduct the Union's common foreign and security policy. The European Council may end his
or her tenure by the same procedure.
2.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall contribute by his or her proposals to the
development of the common foreign policy, which he or she shall carry out as mandated by
the Council of Ministers. The same shall apply to the common security and defence policy.
3.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall be one of the Vice-Presidents of the
Commission. He or she shall be responsible there for handling external relations and for
coordinating other aspects of the Union's external action. In exercising these responsibilities
within the Commission, and only for these responsibilities, the Union Minister for Foreign
Affairs shall be bound by Commission procedures.

Article 28: The Court of Justice
1.
The Court of Justice shall include the European Court of Justice, the High Court and
specialised courts. It shall ensure respect for the law in the interpretation and application of
the Constitution.
Member States shall provide rights of appeal sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in
the field of Union law.
2.
The European Court of Justice shall consist of one judge from each Member State, and shall
be assisted by Advocates-General.
The High Court shall include at least one judge per Member State: the number shall be fixed
by the Statute of the Court of Justice.
The judges and the Advocates-General of the European Court of Justice and the judges of the
High Court, chosen from persons whose independence is beyond doubt and who satisfy the
conditions set out in Articles III-260 and III-261, shall be appointed by common accord of the
governments of the Member States for a term of six years, renewable.
3.
The Court of Justice shall:
­
rule on actions brought by a Member State, an Institution or a natural or legal person in
accordance with the provisions of Part III;
­
give preliminary rulings, at the request of Member State courts, on the interpretation of
Union law or the validity of acts adopted by the Institutions;
­
rule on the other cases provided for in the Constitution.

Chapter II ­ Other Institutions and bodies

Article 29: The European Central Bank
1.
The European Central Bank, together with the national central banks, shall constitute the
European System of Central Banks. The European Central Bank, together with the national
central banks of the Member States which have adopted the Union currency, the euro, shall
conduct the monetary policy of the Union.
2.
The European System of Central Banks shall be governed by the decision-making bodies of
the European Central Bank. The primary objective of the European System of Central Banks
shall be to maintain price stability. Without prejudice to the objective of price stability, it
shall support general economic policies in the Union with a view to contributing to the
achievement of the Union's objectives. It shall conduct other Central Bank tasks according to
the provisions of Part III and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the
European Central Bank.
3.
The European Central Bank is an Institution which has legal personality. It alone may
authorise the issue of the euro. In the exercise of its powers and for its finances, it shall be
independent. Union Institutions and bodies, and the governments of the Member States, shall
undertake to respect this principle.
4.
The European Central Bank shall adopt such measures as are necessary to carry out its tasks
in accordance with the provisions of Articles III-77 to III-83 and Article III-90, and with the
conditions laid down in the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the
European Central Bank. In accordance with these same provisions, those Member States
which have not adopted the euro, and their central banks, shall retain their powers in monetary
matters.
5.
Within its areas of competence, the European Central Bank shall be consulted on all proposed
Union acts, and all proposals for regulation at national level, and may give an opinion.
6.
The decision-making organs of the European Central Bank, their composition and operating
methods are set out in Articles III-84 to III-87, as well as in the Statute of the
European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank.

Article 30: The Court of Auditors

1.
The Court of Auditors is the Institution which shall carry out the audit.
2.
It shall examine the accounts of all Union revenue and expenditure, and shall ensure good
financial management.
3.
It shall consist of one national of each Member State. In the performance of their duties, its
members shall be completely independent.

Article 31: The Union's advisory bodies

1.
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall be assisted by a
Committee of the Regions and an Economic and Social Committee, exercising advisory
functions.
2.
The Committee of the Regions shall consist of representatives of regional and local bodies
who either hold a regional or local authority electoral mandate or are politically accountable
to an elected assembly.
3.
The Economic and Social Committee shall consist of representatives of organisations of
employers, of the employed, and of others representative of civil society, notably in
socio-economic, civic, professional and cultural areas.
4.
The members of the Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee must
not be bound by any mandatory instructions. They shall be completely independent, in the
performance of their duties, in the Union's general interest.
5.
Rules governing the composition of these Committees, the designation of their members, their
powers and their operations, are set out in Articles III-292 to III-298. The rules governing
their composition shall be reviewed at regular intervals by the Council of Ministers, on the
basis of a Commission proposal, in the light of economic, social and demographic
developments within the Union.

TITLE V: EXERCISE OF UNION COMPETENCE


Chapter I ­ Common provisions


Article 32: The legal acts of the Union

1.
In exercising the competences conferred on it in the Constitution, the Union shall use as legal
instruments, in accordance with the provisions of Part III, European laws, European
framework laws, European regulations, European decisions, recommendations and opinions.
A European law shall be a legislative act of general application. It shall be binding in its
entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.
A European framework law shall be a legislative act binding, as to the result to be achieved,
on the Member States to which it is addressed, but leaving the national authorities entirely
free to choose the form and means of achieving that result.
A European regulation shall be a non-legislative act of general application for the
implementation of legislative acts and of certain specific provisions of the Constitution. It
may either be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States, or be
binding, as regards the result to be achieved, on all Member States to which it is addressed,
but leaving the national authorities entirely free to choose the form and means of achieving
that result.
A European decision shall be a non-legislative act, binding in its entirety. A decision which
specifies those to whom it is addressed shall be binding only on them.
Recommendations and opinions adopted by the Institutions shall have no binding force.
2.
When considering proposals for legislative acts, the European Parliament and the Council of
Ministers shall refrain from adopting acts not provided for by this Article in the area in
question.

Article 33: Legislative acts
1.
European laws and European framework laws shall be adopted, on the basis of proposals from
the Commission, jointly by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers under the
ordinary legislative procedure as set out in Article III-302. If the two Institutions cannot reach
agreement on an act, it shall not be adopted.
In the cases specifically provided for in Article III-165, European laws and European
framework laws may be adopted at the initiative of a group of Member States in accordance
with Article III-302.
2.
In the specific cases provided for by the Constitution, European laws and European
framework laws shall be adopted by the European Parliament with the participation of the
Council of Ministers, or by the latter with the participation of the European Parliament, in
accordance with special legislative procedures.

Article 34: Non-legislative acts
1.
The Council of Ministers and the Commission shall adopt European regulations or European
decisions in the cases referred to in Articles 35 and 36 and in the cases specifically provided
for in the Constitution. The European Council shall adopt European decisions in the cases
specifically provided for in the Constitution. The European Central Bank shall adopt
European regulations and European decisions when authorised to do so by the Constitution.
2.
The Council of Ministers and the Commission, and the European Central Bank when so
authorised in the Constitution, adopt recommendations.

Article 35: Delegated regulations

1.
European laws and European framework laws may delegate to the Commission the power to
enact delegated regulations to supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of the
European law or framework law.
The objectives, content, scope and duration of the delegation shall be explicitly defined in the
European laws and framework laws. A delegation may not cover the essential elements of an
area. These shall be reserved for the European law or framework law.
2.
The conditions of application to which the delegation is subject shall be explicitly determined
in the European laws and framework laws. They may consist of the following possibilities:
­
the European Parliament or the Council of Ministers may decide to revoke the
delegation;­
the delegated regulation may enter into force only if no objection has been expressed by
the European Parliament or the Council of Ministers within a period set by the European
law or framework law.
For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the European Parliament shall act by a majority
of its members, and the Council of Ministers by a qualified majority.

Article 36: Implementing acts
1.
Member States shall adopt all measures of national law necessary to implement legally
binding Union acts.
2.
Where uniform conditions for implementing binding Union acts are needed, those acts may
confer implementing powers on the Commission, or, in specific cases duly justified and in the
cases provided for in Article 39, on the Council of Ministers.
3.
The European laws shall lay down in advance rules and general principles for the mechanisms
for control by Member States of Union implementing acts.
4.
Union implementing acts shall take the form of European implementing regulations or
European implementing decisions.

Article 37: Principles common to the Union's legal acts
1.
Unless the Constitution contains a specific stipulation, the Institutions shall decide, in
compliance with the procedures applicable, the type of act to be adopted in each case,
in accordance with the principle of proportionality set out in Article 9.
2.
European laws, European framework laws, European regulations and European decisions
shall state the reasons on which they are based and shall refer to any proposals or opinions
required by the Constitution.

Article 38: Publication and entry into force
1.
European laws and framework laws adopted under the ordinary legislative procedure shall be
signed by the President of the European Parliament and by the President of the Council of
Ministers. In other cases they shall be signed by the President of the European Parliament or
by the President of the Council of Ministers. European laws and European framework laws
shall be published in the Official Journal of the European Union and shall enter into force on
the date specified in them or, in the absence of such a stated date, on the twentieth day
following their publication.
2. European regulations and European decisions which do not specify to whom they are
addressed or which are addressed to all Member States shall be signed by the President of the
Institution which adopts them, shall be published in the Official Journal of the
European Union and shall enter into force on the date specified in them or, in the absence of
such a stated date, on the twentieth day following their publication.
3.
Other decisions shall be notified to those to whom they are addressed and shall take effect
upon such notification.

Chapter II ­ Specific provisions

Article 39: Specific provisions for implementing common foreign and security policy

1.
The European Union shall conduct a common foreign and security policy, based on the
development of mutual political solidarity among Member States, the identification of
questions of general interest and the achievement of an ever-increasing degree of convergence
of Member States' actions.
2.
The European Council shall identify the Union's strategic interests and determine the
objectives of its common foreign and security policy. The Council of Ministers shall frame
this policy within the framework of the strategic guidelines established by the
European Council and in accordance with the arrangements in Part III.
3.
The European Council and the Council of Ministers shall adopt the necessary European
decisions.
4.
The common foreign and security policy shall be put into effect by the Union Minister for
Foreign Affairs and by the Member States, using national and Union resources.
5.
Member States shall consult one another within the European Council and the
Council of Ministers on any foreign and security policy issue which is of general interest in
order to determine a common approach. Before undertaking any action on the international
scene or any commitment which could affect the Union's interests, each Member State shall
consult the others within the European Council or the Council of Ministers. Member States
shall ensure, through the convergence of their actions, that the Union is able to assert its
interests and values on the international scene. Member States shall show mutual solidarity.
6.
The European Parliament shall be regularly consulted on the main aspects and basic choices
of the common foreign and security policy and shall be kept informed of how it evolves.
7.
European decisions relating to the common foreign and security policy shall be adopted by
the European Council and the Council of Ministers unanimously, except in the cases referred
to in Part III. The European Council and the Council of Ministers shall act on a proposal from
a Member State, from the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs or from that Minister with the
Commission's support. European laws and European framework laws are excluded.
8.
The European Council may unanimously decide that the Council of Ministers should act by
qualified majority in cases other than those referred to in Part III.

Article 40: Specific provisions for implementing the common security and defence policy
1.
The common security and defence policy shall be an integral part of the common foreign and
security policy. It shall provide the Union with an operational capacity drawing on assets
civil and military. The Union may use them on missions outside the Union for peace-keeping,
conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles
of the United Nations Charter. The performance of these tasks shall be undertaken using
capabilities provided by the Member States.
2.
The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common
Union defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council,
acting unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the Member States the
adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
The policy of the Union in accordance with this Article shall not prejudice the specific
character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States and shall respect the
obligations of certain Member States, which see their common defence realised in the North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation, under the North Atlantic Treaty, and be compatible with the
common security and defence policy established within that framework.
3.
Member States shall make civilian and military capabilities available to the Union for the
implementation of the common security and defence policy, to contribute to the objectives
defined by the Council of Ministers. Those Member States which together establish
multinational forces may also make them available to the common security and defence
policy.
Member States shall undertake progressively to improve their military capabilities.
A European Armaments, Research and Military Capabilities Agency shall be established to
identify operational requirements, to promote measures to satisfy those requirements, to
contribute to identifying and, where appropriate, implementing any measure needed to
strengthen the industrial and technological base of the defence sector, to participate in
defining a European capabilities and armaments policy, and to assist the Council of Ministers
in evaluating the improvement of military capabilities.
4.
European decisions on the implementation of the common security and defence policy,
including those initiating a mission as referred to in this Article, shall be adopted by the
Council of Ministers acting unanimously on a proposal from the Union Minister for
Foreign Affairs or from a Member State. The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs may
propose the use of both national resources and Union instruments, together with the
Commission where appropriate.
5.
The Council of Ministers may entrust the execution of a task, within the Union framework, to
a group of Member States in order to protect the Union's values and serve its interests.
The execution of such a task shall be governed by Article III-211.
6.
Those Member States whose military capabilities fulfil higher criteria and which have made
more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding
missions shall establish structured cooperation within the Union framework. Such
cooperation shall be governed by the provisions of Article III-213.
7.
Until such time as the European Council has acted in accordance with paragraph 2 of this
Article, closer cooperation shall be established, in the Union framework, as regards mutual
defence. Under this cooperation, if one of the Member States participating in such
cooperation is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other participating States
shall give it aid and assistance by all the means in their power, military or other, in accordance
with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. In the execution of closer cooperation on
mutual defence, the participating Member States shall work in close cooperation with the
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The detailed arrangements for participation in this
cooperation and its operation, and the relevant decision-making procedures, are set out in
Article III-214.
8.
The European Parliament shall be regularly consulted on the main aspects and basic choices
of the common security and defence policy, and shall be kept informed of how it evolves.

Article 41: Specific provisions for implementing the area of freedom, security and justice

1.
The Union shall constitute an area of freedom, security and justice:
­
by adopting European laws and framework laws intended, where necessary, to
approximate national laws in the areas listed in Part III;
­
by promoting mutual confidence between the competent authorities of the Member
States, in particular on the basis of mutual recognition of judicial and extrajudicial
decisions;
­
by operational cooperation between the competent authorities of the Member States,
including the police, customs and other services specialising in the prevention and
detection of criminal offences.
2.
Within the area of freedom, security and justice, national parliaments may participate in the
evaluation mechanisms foreseen in Article III-161, and shall be involved in the political
monitoring of Europol and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities in accordance with
Articles III-177 and III-174.
3.
In the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, Member States shall have
a right of initiative in accordance with Article III-160 of the Constitution.

Article 42: Solidarity clause

1.
The Union and its Member States shall act jointly in a spirit of solidarity if a Member State is
the victim of terrorist attack or natural or man-made disaster. The Union shall mobilise all the
instruments at its disposal, including the military resources made available by the
Member States, to:
(a)­
prevent the terrorist threat in the territory of the Member States;
­
protect democratic institutions and the civilian population from any terrorist
attack;
­
assist a Member State in its territory at the request of its political authorities in the
event of a terrorist attack;

(b)­
assist a Member State in its territory at the request of its political authorities in the
event of a disaster.
2.
The detailed arrangements for implementing this provision are at Article III-231.

Chapter III ­ Enhanced cooperation

Article 43: Enhanced cooperation
1.
Member States which wish to establish enhanced cooperation between themselves within the
framework of the Union's non-exclusive competences may make use of its Institutions and
exercise those competences by applying the relevant provisions of the Constitution, subject to
the limits and in accordance with the procedures laid down in this Article and in
Articles III-322 to III-329.
Enhanced cooperation shall aim to further the objectives of the Union, protect its interests and
reinforce its integration process. Such cooperation shall be open to all Member States when it
is being established and at any time, in accordance with Article III-324.
2.
Authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation shall be granted by the Council of
Ministers as a last resort, when it has been established within the Council of Ministers that the
objectives of such cooperation cannot be attained within a reasonable period by the Union as a
whole, and provided that it brings together at least one third of the Member States. The
Council of Ministers shall act in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article III-325.
3.
Only members of the Council of Ministers representing the States participating in enhanced
cooperation shall take part in the adoption of acts. All Member States may, however, take part
in the deliberations of the Council of Ministers.
Unanimity shall be constituted by the votes of the representatives of the participating States
only. A qualified majority shall be defined as a majority of the votes of the representatives of
the participating States, representing at least three fifths of the population of those States.
Where the Constitution does not require the Council of Ministers to act on the basis of a
Commission proposal, or where the Council of Ministers is not acting upon initiative of the
Minister for Foreign Affairs, the required qualified majority shall be defined as a majority of
two thirds of the participating States, representing at least three fifths of the population of
those States.
4.
Acts adopted in the framework of enhanced cooperation shall bind only participating States.
They shall not be regarded as an acquis which has to be accepted by candidates for accession
to the Union.

TITLE VI: THE DEMOCRATIC LIFE OF THE UNION

Article 44: The principle of democratic equality
In all its activities, the Union shall observe the principle of the equality of citizens. All shall receive
equal attention from the Union's Institutions.

Article 45: The principle of representative democracy
1.
The working of the Union shall be founded on the principle of representative democracy.
2.
Citizens are directly represented at Union level in the European Parliament. Member States
are represented in the European Council and in the Council of Ministers by their governments,
themselves accountable to national parliaments, elected by their citizens.
3.
Every citizen shall have the right to participate in the democratic life of the Union. Decisions
shall be taken as openly as possible and as closely as possible to the citizen.
4.
Political parties at European level contribute to forming European political awareness and to
expressing the will of Union citizens.

Article 46: The principle of participatory democracy
1.
The Union Institutions shall, by appropriate means, give citizens and representative
associations the opportunity to make known and publicly exchange their views in all areas of
Union action.
2.
The Union Institutions shall maintain an open, transparent and regular dialogue with
representative associations and civil society.
3.
The Commission shall carry out broad consultations with parties concerned in order to ensure
that the Union's actions are coherent and transparent.
4.
No less than one million citizens coming from a significant number of Member States may
invite the Commission to submit any appropriate proposal on matters where citizens consider
that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution.
A European law shall determine the provisions for the specific procedures and conditions
required for such a citizens' initiative.

Article 47: The social partners and autonomous social dialogue

The European Union recognises and promotes the role of the social partners at Union level, taking
into account the diversity of national systems; it shall facilitate dialogue between the social partners, respecting their autonomy.

Article 48: The European Ombudsman

A European Ombudsman appointed by the European Parliament shall receive, investigate and
report on complaints about maladministration within the Union Institutions, bodies or agencies.
The European Ombudsman shall be completely independent in the performance of his or her duties.

Article 49: Transparency of the proceedings of Union Institutions
1.
In order to promote good governance and ensure the participation of civil society, the Union
Institutions, bodies and agencies shall conduct their work as openly as possible.
2.
The European Parliament shall meet in public, as shall the Council of Ministers when
examining and adopting a legislative proposal.
3.
Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered
office in a Member State shall have a right of access to documents of the Union Institutions,
bodies and agencies in whatever form they are produced, in accordance with the conditions
laid down in Part III.
4.
A European law shall lay down the general principles and limits which, on grounds of public
or private interest, govern the right of access to such documents.
5.
Each Institution, body or agency referred to in paragraph 3 shall determine in its own rules of
procedure specific provisions regarding access to its documents, in accordance with the
European law referred to in paragraph 4.

Article 50: Protection of personal data
1.
Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
2.
A European law shall lay down the rules relating to the protection of individuals with regard
to the processing of personal data by Union Institutions, bodies and agencies, and by the
Member States when carrying out activities which come under the scope of Union law, and
the rules relating to the free movement of such data. Compliance with these rules shall be
subject to the control of an independent authority.

Article 51: Status of churches and non-confessional organisations
1.
The Union respects and does not prejudice the status under national law of churches and
religious associations or communities in the Member States.
2.
The Union equally respects the status of philosophical and non-confessional organisations.
3.
Recognising their identity and their specific contribution, the Union shall maintain an open,
transparent and regular dialogue with these churches and organisations.

TITLE VII: THE UNION'S FINANCES

Article 52: Budgetary and financial principles
1.
All items of Union revenue and expenditure shall be included in estimates drawn up for each
financial year and shall be shown in the budget, in accordance with the provisions of Part III.
2.
The revenue and expenditure shown in the budget shall be in balance.
3.
The expenditure shown in the budget shall be authorised for the annual budgetary period in
accordance with the European law referred to in Article III-318.
4.
The implementation of expenditure shown in the budget shall require the prior adoption of a
binding legal act providing a legal basis for Union action and for the implementation of the
expenditure in accordance with the European law referred to in Article III-318. This act must
take the form of a European law, a European framework law, a European regulation or a
European decision.
5.
With a view to maintaining budgetary discipline, the Union shall not adopt any act which is
likely to have appreciable implications for the budget without providing an assurance that the
proposal or measure in question is capable of being financed within the limit of the Union's
own resources and the multiannual financial framework referred to in Article 54.
6.
The Union's budget shall be implemented in accordance with the principle of sound financial
management. Member States shall cooperate with the Union to ensure that the appropriations
entered in the budget are used in accordance with the principles of sound financial
management.
7.
The Union and the Member States shall counter fraud and any other illegal activities affecting
the financial interests of the Union in accordance with the provisions of Article III-321.

Article 53: The Union's resources
1.
The Union shall provide itself with the means necessary to attain its objectives and carry
through its policies.
2.
Without prejudice to other revenue, the Union's budget shall be financed wholly from its own
resources.
3.
A European law of the Council of Ministers shall lay down the limit of the Union's resources
and may establish new categories of resources or abolish an existing category. That law shall
not enter into force until it is approved by the Member States in accordance with their
respective constitutional requirements. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
consulting the European Parliament.
4.
A European law of the Council shall lay down the modalities relating to the Union's resources.
The Council of Ministers shall act after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.

Article 54: The multiannual financial framework
1.
The multiannual financial framework shall ensure that Union expenditure develops in an
orderly manner and within the own resources limits. It shall determine the amounts of the
annual ceilings for commitment appropriations by category of expenditure in accordance with
the provisions of Article III-308.
2.
A European law of the Council of Ministers shall lay down the multiannual financial
framework. The Council of Ministers shall act after obtaining the consent of the European
Parliament, which shall be given by a majority of its component members.
3.
The annual budget of the Union shall comply with the multiannual financial framework.
4.
The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously when adopting the first multiannual financial
framework following the entry into force of the Constitution.

Article 55: The Union's budget
The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers shall, on a proposal from the Commission
and in accordance with the arrangements laid down in Article III-310, adopt the European law
determining the Union's annual budget.

TITLE VIII: THE UNION AND ITS IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT

Article 56: The Union and its immediate environment
1.
The Union shall develop a special relationship with neighbouring States, aiming to establish
an area of prosperity and good neighbourliness, founded on the values of the Union and
characterised by close and peaceful relations based on cooperation.
2.
For this purpose, the Union may conclude and implement specific agreements with the
countries concerned in accordance with Article III-227. These agreements may contain
reciprocal rights and obligations as well as the possibility of undertaking activities jointly.
Their implementation shall be the subject of periodic consultation.

TITLE IX: UNION MEMBERSHIP

Article 57: Conditions of eligibility and procedure for accession to the Union
1.
The Union shall be open to all European States which respect the values referred to in
Article 2, and are committed to promoting them together.
2.
Any European State which wishes to become a member of the Union shall address its
application to the Council of Ministers. The European Parliament and the Member States'
national Parliaments shall be notified of this application. The Council of Ministers shall act
unanimously after consulting the Commission and after obtaining the consent of the European
Parliament. The conditions and arrangements for admission shall be the subject of an
agreement between the Member States and the candidate State. That agreement shall be
subject to ratification by each contracting State, in accordance with its respective
constitutional requirements.

Article 58: Suspension of Union membership rights
1.
On a reasoned proposal by one third of the Member States, by the European Parliament or by
the Commission, the Council of Ministers, acting by a majority of four fifths of its members
after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, may adopt a European decision
determining that there is a clear risk of a serious breach by a Member State of the values
mentioned in Article 2. Before making such a determination, the Council of Ministers shall
hear the Member State in question and, acting in accordance with the same procedure, may
address recommendations to that State.
The Council of Ministers shall regularly verify that the grounds on which such a
determination was made continue to apply.
2.
The European Council, acting by unanimity on a proposal by one third of the Member States
or by the Commission and after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, may adopt
a European decision determining the existence of a serious and persistent breach by a Member
State of the values mentioned in Article 2, after inviting the Member State in question to
submit its observations.
3.
Where a determination under paragraph 2 has been made, the Council of Ministers, acting by
a qualified majority, may adopt a European decision suspending certain of the rights deriving
from the application of the Constitution to the Member State in question, including the voting
rights of that Member State in the Council of Ministers. In so doing, the Council of Ministers
shall take into account the possible consequences of such a suspension on the rights and
obligations of natural and legal persons.
That Member State shall in any case continue to be bound by its obligations under the
Constitution.
4.
The Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority, may subsequently adopt a
European decision varying or revoking measures taken under paragraph 3 in response to
changes in the situation which led to their being imposed.
5.
For the purposes of this Article, the Council of Ministers shall act without taking into account
the vote of the Member State in question. Abstentions by members present in person or
represented shall not prevent the adoption of decisions referred to in paragraph 2.
This paragraph shall also apply in the event of voting rights being suspended pursuant to
paragraph 3.
6.
For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2, the European Parliament shall act by a two-thirds
majority of the votes cast, representing the majority of its Members.

Article 59: Voluntary withdrawal from the Union
1.
Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its
own constitutional requirements.
2.
A Member State which decides to withdraw shall notify the European Council of its intention;
the European Council shall examine that notification. In the light of the guidelines provided
by the European Council, the Union shall negotiate and conclude an agreement with that
State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its
future relationship with the Union. That agreement shall be concluded on behalf of the Union
by the Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the
European Parliament.
The representative of the withdrawing Member State shall not participate in Council of
Ministers or European Council discussions or decisions concerning it.
3.
The Constitution shall cease to apply to the State in question from the date of entry into force
of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after the notification referred to in
paragraph 2, unless the European Council, in agreement with the Member State concerned,
decides to extend this period.
4.
If a State which has withdrawn from the Union asks to re-join, its request shall be subject to
the procedure referred to in Article 57.

PART II

THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE UNION

PREAMBLE
The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer union among them, are resolved to share a
peaceful future based on common values.
Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, the Union is founded on the indivisible, universal
values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy
and the rule of law. It places the individual at the heart of its activities, by establishing the
citizenship of the Union and by creating an area of freedom, security and justice. The Union
contributes to the preservation and to the development of these common values while respecting the
diversity of the cultures and traditions of the peoples of Europe as well as the national identities of
the Member States and the organisation of their public authorities at national, regional and local
levels; it seeks to promote balanced and sustainable development and ensures free movement of
persons, goods, services and capital, and the freedom of establishment.
To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights in the light of changes
in society, social progress and scientific and technological developments by making those rights
more visible in a Charter.
This Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Union and the principle of
subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and
international obligations common to the Member States, the European Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted by the Union
and by the Council of Europe and the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of
the European Court of Human Rights. In this context the Charter will be interpreted by the courts
of the Union and the Member States with due regard to the explanations prepared at the instigation
of the Praesidium of the Convention which drafted the Charter.
Enjoyment of these rights entails responsibilities and duties with regard to other persons, to the
human community and to future generations.
The Union therefore recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out hereafter.

TITLE I: DIGNITY

Article II-1: Human dignity
Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.

Article II-2: Right to life
1.
Everyone has the right to life.
2.
No one shall be condemned to the death penalty, or executed.

Article II-3: Right to the integrity of the person
1.
Everyone has the right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity.
2.
In the fields of medicine and biology, the following must be respected in particular:
(a)
the free and informed consent of the person concerned, according to the procedures laid
down by law,
(b)
the prohibition of eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at the selection of
persons,
(c)
the prohibition on making the human body and its parts as such a source of financial
gain,
(d)
the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings.

Article II-4: Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article II-5: Prohibition of slavery and forced labour
1.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2.
No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
3.
Trafficking in human beings is prohibited.

TITLE II: FREEDOMS

Article II-6: Right to liberty and security
Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.

Article II-7: Respect for private and family life
Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.

Article II-8: Protection of personal data
1.
Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
2.
Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of
the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right
of access to data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it
rectified.
3.
Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.

Article II-9: Right to marry and right to found a family
The right to marry and the right to found a family shall be guaranteed in accordance with the
national laws governing the exercise of these rights.

Article II-10: Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
1.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes
freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others
and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and
observance.
2.
The right to conscientious objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws
governing the exercise of this right.

Article II-11: Freedom of expression and information
1.
Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold
opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public
authority and regardless of frontiers.
2.
The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected.

Article II-12: Freedom of assembly and of association
1.
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all
levels, in particular in political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of
everyone to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.
2.
Political parties at Union level contribute to expressing the political will of the citizens of
the Union.

Article II-13: Freedom of the arts and sciences
The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.

Article II-14: Right to education
1.
Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
2.
This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory education.
3.
The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles
and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity
with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in
accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.

Article II-15: Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work
1.
Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted
occupation.
2.
Every citizen of the Union has the freedom to seek employment, to work, to exercise the right
of establishment and to provide services in any Member State.
3.
Nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States
are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union.

Article II-16: Freedom to conduct a business
The freedom to conduct a business in accordance with Union law and national laws and practices is
recognised.

Article II-17: Right to property
1.
Everyone has the right to own, use, dispose of and bequeath his or her lawfully acquired
possessions. No one may be deprived of his or her possessions, except in the public interest
and in the cases and under the conditions provided for by law, subject to fair compensation
being paid in good time for their loss. The use of property may be regulated by law insofar as
is necessary for the general interest.
2.
Intellectual property shall be protected.

Article II-18: Right to asylum
The right to asylum shall be guaranteed with due respect for the rules of the Geneva Convention of
28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees and in
accordance with the Constitution.

Article II-19: Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition
1.
Collective expulsions are prohibited.
2.
No one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he
or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment.

TITLE III: EQUALITY

Article II-20: Equality before the law
Everyone is equal before the law.

Article II-21: Non-discrimination
1.
Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin,
genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a
national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
2.
Within the scope of application of the Constitution and without prejudice to any of its specific
provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.

Article II-22: Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity
The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.

Article II-23: Equality between men and women
Equality between men and women must be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and
pay.
The principle of equality shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of measures providing for
specific advantages in favour of the under-represented sex.

Article II-24: The rights of the child
1.
Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being.
They may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters
which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity.
2.
In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private Institutions,
the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.
3.
Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and
direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests.

Article II-25: The rights of the elderly
The Union recognises and respects the rights of the elderly to lead a life of dignity and
independence and to participate in social and cultural life.

Article II-26: Integration of persons with disabilities
The Union recognises and respects the right of persons with disabilities to benefit from measures
designed to ensure their independence, social and occupational integration and participation in the
life of the community.

TITLE IV: SOLIDARITY

Article II-27: Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking
Workers or their representatives must, at the appropriate levels, be guaranteed information and
consultation in good time in the cases and under the conditions provided for by Union law and
national laws and practices.

Article II-28: Right of collective bargaining and action
Workers and employers, or their respective organisations, have, in accordance with Union law and
national laws and practices, the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements at the
appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts of interest, to take collective action to defend their
interests, including strike action.

Article II-29: Right of access to placement services
Everyone has the right of access to a free placement service.

Article II-30: Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal
Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in accordance with Union law and national laws and practices.

Article II-31: Fair and just working conditions
1.
Every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and
dignity.
2.
Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum working hours, to daily and weekly
rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave.

Article II-32: Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work
The employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not
be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be
more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations.
Young people admitted to work must have working conditions appropriate to their age and be
protected against economic exploitation and any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to interfere with their education.

Article II-33: Family and professional life
1.
The family shall enjoy legal, economic and social protection.
2.
To reconcile family and professional life, everyone shall have the right to protection from
dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid maternity leave and to
parental leave following the birth or adoption of a child.

Article II-34: Social security and social assistance
1.
The Union recognises and respects the entitlement to social security benefits and social
services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents,
dependency or old age, and in the case of loss of employment, in accordance with the rules
laid down by Union law and national laws and practices.
2.
Everyone residing and moving legally within the European Union is entitled to social security
benefits and social advantages in accordance with Union law and national laws and practices.
3.
In order to combat social exclusion and poverty, the Union recognises and respects the right
to social and housing assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack
sufficient resources, in accordance with the rules laid down by Union law and national laws
and practices.

Article II-35: Health care
Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical
treatment under the conditions established by national laws and practices. A high level of human
health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and
activities.

Article II-36: Access to services of general economic interest
The Union recognises and respects access to services of general economic interest as provided for
in national laws and practices, in accordance with the Constitution, in order to promote the social
and territorial cohesion of the Union.

Article II-37: Environmental protection
A high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment
must be integrated into the policies of the Union and ensured in accordance with the principle of
sustainable development.

Article II-38: Consumer protection
Union policies shall ensure a high level of consumer protection.

TITLE V: CITIZENS' RIGHTS

Article II-39: Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament
1.
Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the
European Parliament in the Member State in which he or she resides, under the same
conditions as nationals of that State.
2.
Members of the European Parliament shall be elected by direct universal suffrage in a free
and secret ballot.

Article II-40: Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections
Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections in the Member State in which he or she resides under the same conditions as nationals of that State.

Article II-41: Right to good administration
1.
Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a
reasonable time by the Institutions, bodies and agencies of the Union.
2.
This right includes:
(a)
the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect
him or her adversely is taken;
(b)
the right of every person to have access to his or her file, while respecting the legitimate
interests of confidentiality and of professional and business secrecy;
(c)
the obligation of the administration to give reasons for its decisions.
3.
Every person has the right to have the Union make good any damage caused by its Institutions
or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the general principles
common to the laws of the Member States.
4.
Every person may write to the Institutions of the Union in one of the languages of
the Constitution and must have an answer in the same language.

Article II-42: Right of access to documents
Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, has a right of access to documents of the Institutions, bodies and agencies of
the Union, in whatever form they are produced.

Article II-43: European Ombudsman
Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a
Member State has the right to refer to the European Ombudsman cases of maladministration in the
activities of the Institutions, bodies or agencies of the Union, with the exception of the European
Court of Justice and the High Court acting in their judicial role.

Article II-44: Right to petition
Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to petition the European Parliament.

Article II-45: Freedom of movement and of residence
1.
Every citizen of the Union has the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the
Member States.
2.
Freedom of movement and residence may be granted, in accordance with the Constitution, to
nationals of third countries legally resident in the territory of a Member State.

Article II-46: Diplomatic and consular protection
Every citizen of the Union shall, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of
which he or she is a national is not represented, be entitled to protection by the diplomatic or
consular authorities of any Member State, on the same conditions as the nationals of that
Member State.

TITLE VI: JUSTICE

Article II-47: Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial
Everyone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right
to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article.
Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and
impartial tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the possibility of being
advised, defended and represented.
Legal aid shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources insofar as such aid is
necessary to ensure effective access to justice.

Article II-48: Presumption of innocence and right of defence
1.
Everyone who has been charged shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to
law.
2.
Respect for the rights of the defence of anyone who has been charged shall be guaranteed.

Article II-49: Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties
1.
No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which
did not constitute a criminal offence under national law or international law at the time when
it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at
the time the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of a criminal
offence, the law provides for a lighter penalty, that penalty shall be applicable.
2.
This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission
which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles
recognised by the community of nations.
3.
The severity of penalties must not be disproportionate to the criminal offence.

Article II-50: Right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same
criminal offence
No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted within the Union in accordance with the
law.

TITLE VII: GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF THE CHARTER

Article II-51: Field of application
1.
The provisions of this Charter are addressed to the Institutions, bodies and agencies of the
Union with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity and to the Member States only when
they are implementing Union law. They shall therefore respect the rights, observe the
principles and promote the application thereof in accordance with their respective powers and
respecting the limits of the powers of the Union as conferred on it in the other Parts of the
Constitution.
2.
This Charter does not extend the field of application of Union law beyond the powers of
the Union or establish any new power or task for the Union, or modify powers and tasks
defined in the other Parts of the Constitution.

Article II-52: Scope and interpretation of rights and principles
1.
Any limitation on the exercise of the rights and freedoms recognised by this Charter must be
provided for by law and respect the essence of those rights and freedoms. Subject to the
principle of proportionality, limitations may be made only if they are necessary and genuinely
meet objectives of general interest recognised by the Union or the need to protect the rights
and freedoms of others.
2.
Rights recognised by this Charter for which provision is made in other Parts of the
Constitution shall be exercised under the conditions and within the limits defined by these
relevant Parts
3.
Insofar as this Charter contains rights which correspond to rights guaranteed by the
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the meaning and
scope of those rights shall be the same as those laid down by the said Convention. This
provision shall not prevent Union law providing more extensive protection.
4.
Insofar as this Charter recognises fundamental rights as they result from the constitutional
traditions common to the Member States, those rights shall be interpreted in harmony with
those traditions.
5.
The provisions of this Charter which contain principles may be implemented by legislative
and executive acts taken by Institutions and bodies of the Union, and by acts of Member
States when they are implementing Union law, in the exercise of their respective powers.
They shall be judicially cognisable only in the interpretation of such acts and in the ruling on
their legality.
6.
Full account shall be taken of national laws and practices as specified in this Charter.

Article II-53: Level of protection
Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and
fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of application, by Union law and
international law and by international agreements to which the Union or all the Member States
are party, including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' constitutions.

Article II-54: Prohibition of abuse of rights
Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as implying any right to engage in any activity or to
perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognised in this
Charter or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for herein.

PART III
THE POLICIES AND FUNCTIONING OF THE UNION

TITLE I
CLAUSES OF GENERAL APPLICATION

Article III-1
The Union shall ensure consistency between the different policies and activities referred to in this
Part, taking all of the Union's objectives into account and in accordance with the principle of
conferring of powers.

Article III-2
In all the activities referred to in this Part, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality, between men and women.
 
Article III-3
In defining and implementing the policies and activities referred to in this Part, the Union shall aim to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

Article III-4
Environmental protection requirements must be integrated into the definition and implementation of
the Union policies and activities referred to in this Part, in particular with a view to promoting
sustainable development.

Article III-5
Consumer protection requirements shall be taken into account in defining and implementing other
Union policies and activities.

Article III-6
Without prejudice to Articles III-55, III-56 and III-136, and given the place occupied by services of general economic interest as services to which all in the Union attribute value as well as their role in promoting social and territorial cohesion, the Union and the Member States, each within their respective powers and within the scope of application of the Constitution, shall take care that such services operate on the basis of principles and conditions, in particular economic and financial, which enable them to fulfil their missions. European laws shall define these principles and conditions.

TITLE II
NON-DISCRIMINATION AND CITIZENSHIP

Article III-7
European laws or framework laws may lay down rules to prohibit discrimination on grounds of
nationality as referred to in Article I-4.

Article III-8
1.
Without prejudice to the other provisions of the Constitution and within the limits of the
powers conferred by it upon the Union, a European law or framework law of the Council of
Ministers may establish the measures needed to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic
origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The Council of Ministers shall act
unanimously after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
2.
European laws or framework laws may establish basic principles for Union incentive
measures and define such incentive measures, to support action taken by Member States, excluding
any harmonisation of their laws and regulations.

Article III-9
1.
If action by the Union should prove necessary to facilitate the exercise of the right, referred to
in Article I-8, of every Union citizen to move and reside freely and the Constitution has not
provided the necessary powers, European laws or framework laws may establish measures for that
purpose.
2.
For the same purpose and unless the Constitution has provided for powers of action in this
area, measures concerning passports, identity cards, residence permits or any other such document
and measures concerning social security or social protection may be laid down by a European law
or framework law of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-10
A European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers shall determine the detailed
arrangements for exercising the right, referred to in Article I-8, for every Union citizen to vote and to stand as a candidate in municipal elections and elections to the European Parliament in their Member State of residence without being a national of that State. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European Parliament. These arrangements may provide for
derogations where warranted by problems specific to a Member State. The right to vote and to stand as a candidate in elections to the European Parliament shall be exercised without prejudice to Article III-232(2) and the measures adopted for its implementation.

Article III-11
Member States shall adopt the necessary provisions to secure diplomatic and consular protection of
citizens of the Union in third countries, as referred to in Article I-8.
A European law of the Council of Ministers may establish the measures necessary to facilitate such
protection. The Council of Ministers shall act after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-12
The languages in which every citizen of the Union has the right to address the institutions or
advisory bodies under Article I-8, and to have an answer, are those listed in Article IV. The
institutions and advisory bodies referred to in this Article are those listed in Articles I-18(2), I-30 and I-31 and also the European Ombudsman.

Article III-13
The Commission shall report to the European Parliament, to the Council of Ministers and to the
Economic and Social Committee every three years on the application of the provisions of
Article I-8 and of this Title. This report shall take account of the development of the Union.
On this basis, and without prejudice to the other provisions of the Constitution, a European law or
framework law of the Council of Ministers may add to the rights laid down in Article I-8. The
Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
The law or framework law concerned shall not enter into force until it is approved by the Member
States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.

TITLE III. INTERNAL POLICIES AND ACTION

CHAPTER I. INTERNAL MARKET

SECTION 1. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INTERNAL MARKET

Article III-14
1.
The Union shall adopt measures with the aim of establishing the internal market,
in accordance with this Article, Article III-15, Article III-26(1) and Articles III-29, III-39, III-62, III-65 and III-143 and without prejudice to the other provisions of the Constitution.
2.
The internal market shall comprise an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured in accordance with the Constitution.
3.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt European regulations and decisions determining the guidelines and conditions necessary to ensure balanced progress in all the sectors concerned.

Article III-15
When drawing up its proposals with a view to achieving the objectives set out in Article III-14, the Commission shall take into account the extent of the effort that certain economies showing
differences in development will have to sustain for the establishment of the internal market and it
may propose appropriate measures.
If these measures take the form of derogations, they must be of a temporary nature and must cause
the least possible disturbance to the functioning of the internal market.

Article III-16
Member States shall consult each other with a view to taking together the steps needed to prevent
the functioning of the internal market being affected by steps which a Member State may be called
upon to take in the event of serious internal disturbances affecting the maintenance of law and
order, in the event of war, serious international tension constituting a threat of war, or in order to carry out obligations it has accepted for the purpose of maintaining peace and international security.

Article III-17
If steps taken in the circumstances referred to in Articles III-6 and III-34 have the effect of
distorting the conditions of competition in the internal market, the Commission shall, together with the State concerned, examine how these steps can be adjusted to the rules laid down in the
Constitution.
By way of derogation from the procedure laid down in Articles III-265 and III-266, the Commission
or any Member State may bring the matter directly before the Court of Justice if it considers that
another Member State is making improper use of the powers provided for in Articles III-6 and
III-34. The Court of Justice shall give its ruling in camera.

SECTION 2. FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS AND SERVICES

Subsection 1. Workers

Article III-18
1.
Workers shall have the right to move freely within the Union.
2.
Any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment shall be prohibited.
3.
Workers shall have the right, subject to limitations justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health:
(a)
to accept offers of employment actually made;
(b)
to move freely within the territory of Member States for this purpose;
(c)
to stay in a Member State for the purpose of employment in accordance with the provisions governing the employment of nationals of that State laid down by law, regulation or administrative action;
(d)
to remain in the territory of a Member State after having been employed in that State, subject to conditions which shall be embodied in European regulations adopted by the
Commission.
4.
This Article shall not apply to employment in the public service.

Article III-19
European laws or framework laws shall establish the measures needed to bring about freedom of
movement for workers, as defined in Article III-18. They shall be adopted after consultation of the
Economic and Social Committee. Such European laws or framework laws shall aim, in particular, to:
(a)
ensure close cooperation between national employment services;
(b)
abolish those administrative procedures and practices and those qualifying periods in respect
of eligibility for available employment, whether resulting from national legislation or from
agreements previously concluded between Member States, the maintenance of which would
form an obstacle to liberalisation of the movement of workers;
(c)
abolish all such qualifying periods and other restrictions provided for either under national
legislation or under agreements previously concluded between Member States as impose on
workers of other Member States conditions regarding the free choice of employment other
than those imposed on workers of the State concerned;
(d)
set up appropriate machinery to bring offers of employment into touch with applications for
employment and to facilitate the achievement of a balance between supply and demand in the
employment market in such a way as to avoid serious threats to the standard of living and
level of employment in the various regions and industries.

Article III-20
Member States shall, within the framework of a joint programme, encourage the exchange of young
workers.

Article III-21
In the field of social security, European laws or framework laws shall establish such measures as
are necessary to bring about freedom of movement for workers by introducing a system to secure
for employed and self-employed migrant workers and their dependants:
(a)
aggregation, for the purpose of acquiring and retaining the right to benefit and of calculating
the amount of benefit, of all periods taken into account under the laws of the several
countries;
(b)
payment of benefits to persons resident in the territories of Member States.

Subsection 2. Freedom of establishment

Article III-22
Within the framework of this Subsection, restrictions on the freedom of establishment of nationals
of a Member State in the territory of another Member State shall be prohibited. Such prohibition
shall also apply to restrictions on the setting-up of agencies, branches or subsidiaries by nationals of any Member State established in the territory of any Member State.
Nationals of a Member State shall have the right, in the territory of another Member State, to
take up and pursue activities as self-employed persons and to set up and manage undertakings,
in particular companies or firms within the meaning of the second paragraph of Article III-27, under the conditions laid down for its own nationals by the law of the Member State where such
establishment is effected, subject to the provisions of the Section relating to capital.

Article III-23
1.
European framework laws shall establish measures in order to attain freedom of establishment
as regards a particular activity. They shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
2.
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall carry out the
duties devolving upon them under paragraph 1, in particular:
(a)
by according, as a general rule, priority treatment to activities where freedom of establishment
makes a particularly valuable contribution to the development of production and trade;
(b)
by ensuring close cooperation between the competent authorities in the Member States in
order to ascertain the particular situation within the Union of the various activities concerned;
(c)
by abolishing those administrative procedures and practices, whether resulting from national
legislation or from agreements previously concluded between Member States, the
maintenance of which would form an obstacle to freedom of establishment;
(d)
by ensuring that workers from one Member State employed in the territory of another
Member State may remain in that territory for the purpose of taking up activities therein as
self-employed persons, where they satisfy the conditions which they would be required to
satisfy if they were entering that State at the time when they intended to take up such
activities;
(e)
by enabling a national of one Member State to acquire and use land and buildings situated in
the territory of another Member State, insofar as this does not conflict with the principles
laid down in Article III-123(2);
(f)
by effecting the progressive abolition of restrictions on freedom of establishment in every
branch of activity under consideration, both as regards the conditions for setting up agencies,
branches or subsidiaries in the territory of a Member State and as regards the conditions
governing the entry of personnel belonging to the main establishment into managerial or
supervisory posts in such agencies, branches or subsidiaries;
(g)
by coordinating to the necessary extent the safeguards which, for the protection of the
interests of members and others, are required by Member States of companies or firms within
the meaning of the second paragraph of Article III-27 with a view to making such safeguards
equivalent throughout the Union;
(h)
by satisfying themselves that the conditions of establishment are not distorted by aids granted
by Member States.

Article III-24
This Subsection shall not apply, so far as any given Member State is concerned, to activities which
in that State are connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority.
European laws or framework laws may exempt certain activities from application of this
Subsection.

Article III-25
1.
This Subsection and measures adopted in pursuance thereof shall not prejudice the
applicability of provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States
providing for special treatment for foreign nationals on grounds of public policy, public security or
public health.
2.
European framework laws shall coordinate the national provisions referred to in paragraph 1.

Article III-26
1.
European framework laws shall make it easier for persons to take up and pursue activities as
self-employed persons. It shall cover:
(a)
the mutual recognition of diplomas, certificates and other evidence of formal qualifications;
(b)
the coordination of the provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in
Member States concerning the taking-up and pursuit of activities as self-employed persons.
2.
In the case of the medical and allied and pharmaceutical professions, the progressive abolition
of restrictions shall be dependent upon coordination of the conditions for their exercise in the
various Member States.

Article III-27
Companies or firms formed in accordance with the law of a Member State and having their
registered office, central administration or principal place of business within the Union shall, for the purposes of this Subsection, be treated in the same way as natural persons who are nationals of Member States.
"Companies or firms" means companies or firms constituted under civil or commercial law,
including cooperative societies, and other legal persons governed by public or private law, save for those which are non-profit-making.

Article III-28
Member States shall accord nationals of the other Member States the same treatment as their own
nationals as regards participation in the capital of companies or firms within the meaning of
Article III-27, without prejudice to the application of the other provisions of the Constitution.

Subsection 3. Freedom to provide services

Article III-29
Within the framework of this Subsection, restrictions on freedom to provide services within
the Union shall be prohibited in respect of nationals of Member States who are established in a
Member State other than that of the person for whom the services are intended.
European laws or framework laws may extend this Subsection to nationals of a third country who
provide services and who are established within the Union.

Article III-30
Services shall be considered to be "services" within the meaning of the Constitution where they are
normally provided for remuneration, insofar as they are not governed by the provisions relating to
freedom of movement for goods, capital and persons.
"Services" shall in particular include:
(a)
activities of an industrial character;
(b)
activities of a commercial character;
(c)
activities of craftsmen;
(d)
activities of the professions.
Without prejudice to the Subsection relating to the right of establishment, the person providing a
service may, in order to do so, temporarily pursue his or her activity in the Member State where the
service is provided, under the same conditions as are imposed by that State on its own nationals.

Article III-31
1.
Freedom to provide services in the field of transport shall be governed by the Section relating
to transport.
2.
The liberalisation of banking and insurance services connected with movements of capital shall be effected in step with the liberalisation of movement of capital.

Article III-32
1.
A European framework law shall establish the measures in order to achieve the liberalisation
of a specific service. It shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
2.
As regards the European framework law referred to in paragraph 1, priority shall as a general
rule be given to those services which directly affect production costs or the liberalisation of which
helps to promote trade in goods.

Article III-33
The Member States declare their readiness to undertake the liberalisation of services beyond the
extent required by the European framework law adopted pursuant to Article III-32(1), if their
general economic situation and the situation of the economic sector concerned so permit.
To this end, the Commission shall make recommendations to the Member States concerned.

Article III-34
As long as restrictions on freedom to provide services have not been abolished, each Member State
shall apply such restrictions without distinction on grounds of nationality or of residence to all
persons providing services within the meaning of the first paragraph of Article III-29.

Article III-35
Articles III-24 to III-27 shall apply to the matters covered by this Subsection.

SECTION 3. FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS

Subsection 1. Customs union

Article III-36
1.
The Union shall comprise a customs union which shall cover all trade in goods and which
shall involve the prohibition between Member States of customs duties on imports and exports and
of all charges having equivalent effect, and the adoption of a common customs tariff in their
relations with third countries.
2.
Article III-38 and Subsection 3 of this Section shall apply to products originating in
Member States and to products coming from third countries which are in free circulation in
Member States.

Article III-37
Products coming from a third country shall be considered to be in free circulation in a Member State if the import formalities have been complied with and any customs duties or charges
having equivalent effect which are payable have been levied in that Member State, and if they have
not benefited from a total or partial drawback of such duties or charges.

Article III-38
Customs duties on imports and exports and charges having equivalent effect shall be prohibited
between Member States. This prohibition shall also apply to customs duties of a fiscal nature.

Article III-39
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt the European regulations
and decisions fixing Common Customs Tariff duties.

Article III-40
In carrying out the tasks entrusted to it under this Subsection the Commission shall be guided by:
(a)
the need to promote trade between Member States and third countries;
(b)
developments in conditions of competition within the Union insofar as they lead to an
improvement in the competitive capacity of undertakings;
(c)
the requirements of the Union as regards the supply of raw materials and semi-finished goods;
in this connection the Commission shall take care to avoid distorting conditions of competition between Member States in respect of finished goods;
(d)
the need to avoid serious disturbances in the economies of Member States and to ensure
rational development of production and an expansion of consumption within the Union.

Subsection 2. Customs cooperation

Article III-41
Within the scope of application of the Constitution, European laws or framework laws shall
establish measures in order to strengthen customs cooperation between Member States and between
the latter and the Commission.

Subsection 3. Prohibition of quantitative restrictions

Article III-42
Quantitative restrictions on imports and exports and all measures having equivalent effect shall be
prohibited between Member States.

Article III-43
Article III-42 shall not preclude prohibitions or restrictions on imports, exports or goods in transit justified on grounds of public morality, public policy or public security; the protection of health and life of humans, animals or plants; the protection of national treasures possessing artistic, historic or archaeological value; or the protection of industrial and commercial property. Such prohibitions or restrictions shall not, however, constitute a means of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade between Member States.

Article III-44
1.
Member States shall adjust any State monopolies of a commercial character so as to ensure that no discrimination regarding the conditions under which goods are procured and marketed exists
between nationals of Member States.
This Article shall apply to any body through which a Member State, in law or in fact, either directly or indirectly supervises, determines or appreciably influences imports or exports between Member States. It shall likewise apply to monopolies delegated by the State to others.
2.
Member States shall refrain from any new step which is contrary to the principles laid down
in paragraph 1 or which restricts the scope of the Articles dealing with the prohibition of customs
duties and quantitative restrictions between Member States.
3.
If a State monopoly of a commercial character has rules which are designed to make it easier
to dispose of agricultural products or obtain for them the best return, steps should be taken in
applying this Article to ensure equivalent safeguards for the employment and standard of living of
the producers concerned.

SECTION 4. CAPITAL AND PAYMENTS

Article III-45
Within the framework of this Section, restrictions both on the movement of capital and on payments
between Member States and between Member States and third countries shall be prohibited.

Article III-46
1.
Article III-45 shall be without prejudice to the application to third countries of any restrictions
which existed on 31 December 1993 under national or Union law adopted in respect of the movement of capital to or from third countries involving direct investment ­ including in real estate, establishment, the provision of financial services or the admission of securities to capital markets.
2.
European laws or framework laws shall enact measures on the movement of capital to or from
third countries involving direct investment ­ including investment in real estate ­, establishment,
the provision of financial services or the admission of securities to capital markets.
The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers shall endeavour to achieve the objective of
free movement of capital between Member States and third countries to the greatest extent possible
and without prejudice to other provisions of the Constitution.
3.
Notwithstanding paragraph 2, only a European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers may enact measures which constitute a step back in Union law as regards the liberalisation of the movement of capital to or from third countries. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-47
1.
Article III-45 shall be without prejudice to the right of Member States:
(a)
to apply the relevant provisions of their tax law which distinguish between taxpayers who are
not in the same situation with regard to their place of residence or with regard to the place
where their capital is invested;
(b)
to take all requisite steps to prevent infringements of national provisions laid down by law or
regulation, in particular in the field of taxation and the prudential supervision of financial
institutions, or to lay down procedures for the declaration of capital movements for purposes
of administrative or statistical information, or to take steps which are justified on grounds of
public policy or public security.
2.
This Section shall be without prejudice to the applicability of restrictions on the right of
establishment which are compatible with the Constitution.
3.
The steps and procedures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not constitute a means of
arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on the free movement of capital and payments as
defined in Article III-45.
Article III-48
Where, in exceptional circumstances, movements of capital to or from third countries cause, or
threaten to cause, serious difficulties for the operation of economic and monetary union, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt European regulations or decisions introducing safeguard measures with regard to third countries for a period not exceeding six months if such measures are strictly necessary. It shall act after consulting the European Central Bank.

Article III-49
Where necessary to achieve the objectives set out in Article III-158, in particular as regards
prevention of and fight against organised crime, terrorism and trafficking in human beings,
European laws may define a framework for measures with regard to capital movements and
payments, such as the freezing of funds, financial assets or economic gains belonging to, or owned
or held by, natural or legal persons, groups or non-state entities.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt European regulations or
European decisions in order to implement the laws referred to in the first paragraph.

SECTION 5 RULES ON COMPETITION

Subsection 1. Rules applying to undertakings

Article III-50
1.
The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the internal market: all agreements
between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may
affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention,
restriction or distortion of competition within the internal market, and in particular those which:
(a)
directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions;
(b)
limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment;
(c)
share markets or sources of supply;
(d)
apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby
placing them at a competitive disadvantage;
(e)
make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary
obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with
the subject of such contracts.
2.
Any agreements or decisions prohibited pursuant to this Article shall be automatically void.
3.
Paragraph 1 may, however, be declared inapplicable in the case of:
­
any agreement or category of agreements between undertakings;
­
any decision or category of decisions by associations of undertakings;
­
any concerted practice or category of concerted practices,
which contributes to improving the production or distribution of goods or to promoting
technical or economic progress, while allowing consumers a fair share of the resulting benefit,
and which does not:
(a)
impose on the undertakings concerned restrictions which are not indispensable to the
attainment of these objectives;
(b)
afford such undertakings the possibility of eliminating competition in respect of a substantial part of the products in question.

Article III-51
Any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the internal market or in a
substantial part of it shall be prohibited as incompatible with the internal market insofar as it may affect trade between Member States.
Such abuse may, in particular, consist in:
(a)
directly or indirectly imposing unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair trading
conditions;
(b)
limiting production, markets or technical development to the prejudice of consumers;
(c)
applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby
placing them at a competitive disadvantage;
(d)
making the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.

Article III-52
1.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt the European
regulations to give effect to the principles set out in Articles III-50 and III-51. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
2.
The European regulations referred to in paragraph 1 shall be designed in particular:
(a)
to ensure compliance with the prohibitions laid down in Article III-50(1) and in Article III-51
by making provision for fines and periodic penalty payments;
(b)
to lay down detailed rules for the application of Article III-50(3), taking into account the need
to ensure effective supervision on the one hand, and to simplify administration to the greatest
possible extent on the other;
(c)
to define, if need be, in the various branches of the economy, the scope of the provisions of
Articles III-50 and III-51;
(d)
to define the respective functions of the Commission and of the Court of Justice in applying
the provisions laid down in this paragraph;
(e)
to determine the relationship between national laws and this Section or the European
regulations adopted pursuant to this Article.

Article III-53
Until the entry into force of the European regulations adopted pursuant to Article III-52, the
authorities in Member States shall rule on the admissibility of agreements, decisions and concerted
practices and on abuse of a dominant position in the internal market in accordance with their
internal law and Articles III-50, in particular paragraph 3, and Article III-51.

Article III-54
1.
Without prejudice to Article III-53, the Commission shall ensure the application of the
principles laid down in Articles III-50 and III-51. On application by a Member State or on its own
initiative, and in cooperation with the competent authorities in the Member States, which shall give it their assistance, the Commission shall investigate cases of suspected infringement of these
principles. If it finds that there has been an infringement, it shall propose appropriate measures to bring it to an end.
2.
If the infringement is not brought to an end, the Commission shall adopt a reasoned European
decision recording the infringement of the principles. The Commission may publish its decision
and authorise Member States to take the steps, the conditions and details of which it shall
determine, needed to remedy the situation.
3.
The Commission may adopt European regulations relating to the categories of agreement in
respect of which the Council of Ministers has acted pursuant to Article III-52(2)(b).

Article III-55
1.
In the case of public undertakings and undertakings to which Member States grant special or
exclusive rights, Member States shall neither enact nor maintain in force any provision contrary to
the provisions of the Constitution, in particular Article I-4(2) and Articles III-55 to III-58.
2.
Undertakings entrusted with the operation of services of general economic interest or having
the character of a revenue-producing monopoly shall be subject to the provisions of the
Constitution, in particular to the rules on competition, insofar as the application of such rules does not obstruct the performance, in law or in fact, of the particular tasks assigned to them. The
development of trade must not be affected to such an extent as would be contrary to the Union's
interests.
3.
The Commission shall ensure the application of this Article and shall, where necessary, adopt
appropriate European regulations or decisions.

Subsection 2. Aids granted by Member States

Article III-56
1.
Save as otherwise provided in the Constitution, any aid granted by a Member State or through
State resources in any form whatsoever which distorts or threatens to distort competition by
favouring certain undertakings or the production of certain goods shall, insofar as it affects trade
between Member States, be incompatible with the internal market.
2.
The following shall be compatible with the internal market:
(a)
aid having a social character, granted to individual consumers, provided that such aid is
granted without discrimination related to the origin of the products concerned;
(b)
aid to make good the damage caused by natural disasters or exceptional occurrences;
(c)
aid granted to the economy of certain areas of the Federal Republic of Germany affected by
the division of Germany, insofar as such aid is required in order to compensate for the
economic disadvantages caused by that division.
3.
The following may be considered to be compatible with the internal market:
(a)
aid to promote the economic development of areas where the standard of living is abnormally
low or where there is serious underemployment;
(b)
aid to promote the execution of an important project of common European interest or to
remedy a serious disturbance in the economy of a Member State;
(c)
aid to facilitate the development of certain economic activities or of certain economic areas,
where such aid does not adversely affect trading conditions to an extent contrary to the
common interest;
(d)
aid to promote culture and heritage conservation where such aid does not affect trading
conditions and competition in the Union to an extent that is contrary to the common interest;
(e)
such other categories of aid as may be specified by European regulations or decisions adopted
by the Council of Ministers on a proposal from the Commission.

Article III-57
1.
The Commission, in cooperation with Member States, shall keep under constant review all
systems of aid existing in those States. It shall propose to the latter any appropriate measures
required by the progressive development or by the functioning of the internal market.
2.
If, after giving notice to the parties concerned to submit their comments, the Commission
finds that aid granted by a Member State or through State resources is not compatible with the
internal market having regard to Article III-56, or that such aid is being misused, it shall adopt a European decision requiring the State concerned to abolish or alter such aid within a period of time to be determined by the Commission.
If the State concerned does not comply with this European decision within the prescribed time, the
Commission or any other interested Member State may, in derogation from Articles III-265
and III-266, refer the matter to the Court of Justice direct.
On application by a Member State, the Council of Ministers may adopt unanimously a European
decision that aid which that State is granting or intends to grant shall be considered to be compatible with the internal market, in derogation from Article III-56 or from European regulations provided for in Article III-58, if such a decision is justified by exceptional circumstances. If, as regards the aid in question, the Commission has already initiated the procedure provided for in the first subparagraph of this paragraph, the fact that the State concerned has made its application to the Council of Ministers shall have the effect of suspending that procedure until the Council of Ministers has made its attitude known.
If, however, the Council of Ministers has not made its attitude known within three months of the
said application being made, the Commission shall act.
3.
The Commission shall be informed by the Member States, in sufficient time to enable it to
submit its comments, of any plans to grant or alter aid. If it considers that any such plan is not
compatible with the internal market having regard to Article III-56, it shall without delay initiate the
procedure provided for in paragraph 2. The Member State concerned shall not put its
proposed measures into effect until this procedure has resulted in a final decision.
4.
The Commission may adopt European regulations relating to the categories of State aid that
the Council of Ministers has, pursuant to Article III-58, determined may be exempted from the
procedure provided for by paragraph 3.

Article III-58
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt European regulations for
the application of Articles III-56 and III-57 and for determining in particular the conditions in
which Article III-57(3) shall apply and the categories of aid exempted from this procedure. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.

SECTION 6. FISCAL PROVISIONS

Article III-59
No Member State shall impose, directly or indirectly, on the products of other Member States any
internal taxation of any kind in excess of that imposed directly or indirectly on similar domestic
products.
Furthermore, no Member State shall impose on the products of other Member States any internal
taxation of such a nature as to afford indirect protection to other products.

Article III-60
Where products are exported by a Member State to the territory of another Member State, any
repayment of internal taxation shall not exceed the internal taxation imposed on them whether
directly or indirectly.

Article III-61
In the case of charges other than turnover taxes, excise duties and other forms of indirect taxation, remissions and repayments in respect of exports to other Member States may not be granted and countervailing charges in respect of imports from Member States may not be imposed unless the
provisions contemplated have been previously approved for a limited period by a European decision
adopted by the Council of Ministers on a proposal from the Commission.

Article III-62
1.
A European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers shall lay down measures for
the harmonisation of legislation concerning turnover taxes, excise duties and other forms of indirect
taxation provided that such harmonisation is necessary for the functioning of the internal market
and to avoid distortion of competition. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
consulting the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee.
2.
Where the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission,
finds that the measures referred to in paragraph 1 relate to administrative cooperation or to
combating tax fraud and tax evasion, it shall act, notwithstanding paragraph 1, by a qualified
majority when adopting the European law or framework law adopting these measures.

Article III-63
Where the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission, finds that
measures on company taxation relate to administrative cooperation or combating tax fraud and tax
evasion, it shall adopt, by a qualified majority, a European law or framework law laying down these
measures, provided that they are necessary for the functioning of the internal market and to avoid
distortion of competition.
That law or framework law shall be adopted after consultation of the European Parliament and the
Economic and Social Committee.

SECTION 7. APPROXIMATION OF LEGISLATION

Article III-64
Without prejudice to Article III-65, a European framework law of the Council of Ministers shall
establish measures for the approximation of such laws, regulations or administrative provisions of
the Member States as directly affect the establishment or functioning of the internal market. The
Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European Parliament and the
Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-65
1.
Save where otherwise provided in the Constitution, this Article shall apply for the
achievement of the objectives set out in Article III-14. European laws or framework laws shall
establish measures for the approximation of the provisions laid down by law, regulation or
administrative action in Member States which have as their object the establishment and
functioning of the internal market. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic
and Social Committee.
2.
Paragraph 1 shall not apply to fiscal provisions, to those relating to the free movement of
persons or to those relating to the rights and interests of employed persons.
3.
The Commission, in its proposals submitted under paragraph 1 concerning health, safety,
environmental protection and consumer protection, will take as a base a high level of protection,
taking account in particular of any new development based on scientific facts. Within their
respective powers, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers will also seek to achieve
this objective.
4.
If, after the adoption of a harmonisation measure by means of a European law, framework law
or regulation of the Commission, a Member State deems it necessary to maintain national
provisions on grounds of major needs referred to in Article III-43, or relating to the protection of the
environment or the working environment, it shall notify the Commission of these provisions as well
as the grounds for maintaining them.
5.
Moreover, without prejudice to paragraph 4, if, after the adoption of a harmonisation measure
by means of a European law, framework law or regulation of the Commission, a Member State
deems it necessary to introduce national provisions based on new scientific evidence relating to the protection of the environment or the working environment on grounds of a problem specific to that Member State arising after the adoption of the harmonisation measure, it shall notify the
Commission of the envisaged provisions and the reasons for them.
6.
The Commission shall, within six months of the notifications referred to in paragraphs 4
and 5, adopt a European decision approving or rejecting the national provisions involved after
having verified whether or not they are a means of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade between Member States and whether or not they constitute an obstacle to the functioning of the internal market.
In the absence of a decision by the Commission within this period the national provisions
referred to in paragraphs 4 and 5 shall be deemed to have been approved.
When justified by the complexity of the matter and in the absence of danger for human health, the
Commission may notify the Member State concerned that the period referred to in this paragraph
may be extended for a further period of up to six months.
7.
When, pursuant to paragraph 6, a Member State is authorised to maintain or introduce
national provisions derogating from a harmonisation measure, the Commission shall immediately
examine whether to propose an adaptation to that measure.
8.
When a Member State raises a specific problem on public health in a field which has been the
subject of prior harmonisation measures, it shall bring it to the attention of the Commission which
shall immediately examine whether to propose appropriate measures.
9.
By way of derogation from the procedure laid down in Articles III-265 and III-266, the
Commission and any Member State may bring the matter directly before the Court of Justice if it
considers that another Member State is making improper use of the powers provided for in this
Article.
10.
The harmonisation measures referred to in this Article shall, in appropriate cases, include a
safeguard clause authorising the Member States to take, for one or more of the non-economic
reasons referred to in Article III-43, provisional steps subject to a Union control procedure.

Article III-66
Where the Commission finds that a difference between the provisions laid down by law, regulation
or administrative action in Member States is distorting the conditions of competition in the
internal market and that the resultant distortion needs to be eliminated, it shall consult the Member States concerned.
If such consultation does not result in agreement, European framework laws shall eliminate the
distortion in question. Any other appropriate measures provided for in the Constitution may be
adopted.

Article III-67
1.
Where there is a reason to fear that the adoption or amendment of a national provision laid
down by law, regulation or administrative action may cause distortion within the meaning of
Article III-66, a Member State desiring to proceed therewith shall consult the Commission. After
consulting the Member States, the Commission shall address to the Member States concerned a
recommendation on such measures as may be appropriate to avoid the distortion in question.
2.
If a Member State desiring to introduce or amend its own provisions does not comply with the
recommendation addressed to it by the Commission, other Member States shall not be required,
pursuant to Article III-66, to amend their own provisions in order to eliminate such distortion. If
the Member State which has ignored the recommendation of the Commission causes distortion
detrimental only to itself, Article III-66 shall not apply.

Article III-68
In establishing an internal market, measures for the introduction of European instruments to provide uniform intellectual-property rights protection throughout the Union and for the setting up of centralised Union-wide authorisation, coordination and supervision arrangements shall be
established in European laws or framework laws.
A European law of the Council of Ministers shall establish language arrangements for the European
instruments. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European
Parliament.

CHAPTER II. ECONOMIC AND MONETARY POLICY

Article III-69
1.
For the purposes set out in Article I-3, the activities of the Member States and the Union shall
include, as provided in the Constitution, the adoption of an economic policy which is based on the
close coordination of Member States' economic policies, on the internal market and on the
definition of common objectives, and conducted in accordance with the principle of an open market
economy with free competition.
2.
Concurrently with the foregoing, and as provided in the Constitution and in accordance with
the procedures set out therein, these activities shall include a single currency, the euro, and the
definition and conduct of a single monetary policy and exchange-rate policy, the primary objective
of both of which shall be to maintain price stability and, without prejudice to this objective, to
support the general economic policies in the Union, in accordance with the principle of an open
market economy with free competition.
3.
These activities of the Member States and the Union shall entail compliance with the
following guiding principles: stable prices, sound public finances and monetary conditions and a
stable balance of payments.

SECTION 1. ECONOMIC POLICY

Article III-70
Member States shall conduct their economic policies in order to contribute to the achievement of
the Union's objectives, as defined in Article I-3, and in the context of the broad guidelines referred to in Article III-71(2). The Member States and the Union shall act in accordance with the principle of an open market economy with free competition, favouring an efficient allocation of resources, and in compliance with the principles set out in Article III-69.

Article III-71
1.
Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall
coordinate them within the Council of Ministers, in accordance with Article III-70.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a recommendation from the Commission, shall formulate a draft
for the broad guidelines of the economic policies of the Member States and of the Union, and shall
report its findings to the European Council.
The European Council, on the basis of the report from the Council of Ministers, shall discuss a
conclusion on the broad guidelines of the economic policies of the Member States and of the Union.
On the basis of this conclusion, the Council of Ministers shall adopt a recommendation setting out
these broad guidelines. It shall inform the European Parliament of its recommendation.
3.
In order to ensure closer coordination of economic policies and sustained convergence of the
economic performances of the Member States, the Council of Ministers, on the basis of reports
submitted by the Commission, shall monitor economic developments in each of the Member States
and in the Union, as well as the consistency of economic policies with the broad guidelines referred to in paragraph 2, and shall regularly carry out an overall assessment.
For the purpose of this multilateral surveillance, Member States shall forward information to the
Commission on important steps taken by them in the field of their economic policy and such other
information as they deem necessary.
4.
Where it is established, under the procedure referred to in paragraph 3, that the economic
policies of a Member State are not consistent with the broad guidelines referred to in paragraph 2
or that they risk jeopardising the proper functioning of economic and monetary union, the
Commission may address a warning to the Member State concerned. The Council of Ministers, on
a recommendation from the Commission, may address the necessary recommendations to the
Member State concerned. The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may
decide to make its recommendations public.
Within the scope of this paragraph, the Council of Ministers shall act without taking into account
the vote of the representative of the Member State concerned, and a qualified majority shall be
defined as the majority of the votes of the other Member States, representing at least three fifths of their population.
5.
The President of the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall report to the European
Parliament on the results of multilateral surveillance. The President of the Council of Ministers
may be invited to appear before the competent committee of the European Parliament if the Council
of Ministers has made its recommendations public.
6.
European laws may lay down detailed rules for the multilateral surveillance procedure referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4.

Article III-72
1.
Without prejudice to any other procedures provided for by the Constitution, the Council of
Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt a European decision laying down the
measures appropriate to the economic situation, in particular if severe difficulties arise in the supply of certain products.
2.
Where a Member State is in difficulties or is seriously threatened with severe difficulties
caused by natural disasters or exceptional occurrences beyond its control, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt a European decision granting, under certain
conditions, Union financial assistance to the Member State concerned. The President of the Council
of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament of the decision adopted.

Article III-73
1.
Overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility with the European Central Bank or with
the central banks of the Member States (hereinafter referred to as "national central banks") in favour
of Union institutions, bodies or agencies, central governments, regional, local or other public
authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States shall be
prohibited, as shall the purchase directly from them by the European Central Bank or national
central banks of debt instruments.
2.
Paragraph 1 shall not apply to publicly owned credit institutions which, in the context of the
supply of reserves by central banks, shall be given the same treatment by national central banks and the European Central Bank as private credit institutions.

Article III-74
1.
Any measure or provision, not based on prudential considerations, establishing privileged
access by Union institutions, bodies or agencies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States to
financial institutions shall be prohibited.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt European
regulations or decisions specifying definitions for the application of the prohibition referred to in paragraph 1. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-75
1.
The Union shall not be liable for or assume the commitments of central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of any Member State, without prejudice to mutual financial guarantees for the joint execution of a specific project. A Member State shall not be liable for or assume the commitments of central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of another Member State, without prejudice to mutual financial guarantees for the joint execution of a specific project.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt European regulations or decisions specifying definitions for the application of the prohibitions referred to in Article III-73 and in this Article. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-76
1.
Member States shall avoid excessive government deficits.
2.
The Commission shall monitor the development of the budgetary situation and of the stock of
government debt in the Member States in order to identify gross errors. In particular it shall
examine compliance with budgetary discipline on the basis of the following two criteria:
(a)
whether the ratio of the planned or actual government deficit to gross domestic product exceeds a reference value, unless:
(i)
either the ratio has declined substantially and continuously and reached a level that comes close to the reference value;
(ii)
or, alternatively, the excess over the reference value is only exceptional and temporary and the ratio remains close to the reference value;
(b)
whether the ratio of government debt to gross domestic product exceeds a reference value, unless the ratio is diminishing sufficiently and approaching the reference value at a satisfactory pace. The reference values are specified in the Protocol on the excessive deficit procedure.
3.
If a Member State does not fulfil the requirements under one or both of these criteria, the
Commission shall prepare a report. The report of the Commission shall also take into account
whether the government deficit exceeds government investment expenditure and take into account
all other relevant factors, including the medium-term economic and budgetary position of the
Member State.
The Commission may also prepare a report if, notwithstanding the fulfilment of the requirements
under the criteria, it is of the opinion that there is a risk of an excessive deficit in a Member State.
4.
The Economic and Financial Committee shall formulate an opinion on the report of the Commission.
5.
If the Commission considers that an excessive deficit in a Member State exists or may occur, it shall address an opinion to the Member State concerned.
6.
The Council of Ministers shall, on a proposal from the Commission, having considered any
observations which the Member State concerned may wish to make and after an overall assessment,
decide whether an excessive deficit exists. In that case it shall adopt, according to the same
procedures, recommendations addressed to the Member State concerned with a view to bringing
that situation to an end within a given period. Subject to paragraph 8, those recommendations shall
not be made public.
Within the scope of this paragraph, the Council of Ministers shall act without taking into account
the vote of the representative of the Member State concerned, and a qualified majority shall be
defined as the majority of the votes of the other Member States, representing at least three fifths of their population.
7.
The Council of Ministers, on a recommendation from the Commission, shall adopt the
European decisions and recommendations referred to in paragraphs 8 to 11. It shall act without
taking into account the vote of the representative of the Member State concerned, and a
qualified majority shall be defined as the majority of the other Member States, representing at least three fifths of their population.
8.
Where it establishes that there has been no effective action in response to its
recommendations within the period laid down, the Council of Ministers may make its
recommendations public.
9.
If a Member State persists in failing to put into practice the recommendations of the Council
of Ministers, the Council of Ministers may adopt a European decision giving notice to the Member
State to take, within a specified time-limit, steps for the deficit reduction which is judged necessary by the Council of Ministers in order to remedy the situation.
In such a case, the Council of Ministers may request the Member State concerned to submit reports
in accordance with a specific timetable in order to examine the adjustment efforts of that Member
State.
10.
As long as a Member State fails to comply with a European decision adopted in accordance
with paragraph 9, the Council of Ministers may decide to apply or, as the case may be, intensify one or more of the following measures:
(a)
to require the Member State concerned to publish additional information, to be specified by
the Council of Ministers, before issuing bonds and securities;
(b)
to invite the European Investment Bank to reconsider its lending policy towards the Member
State concerned;
(c)
to require the Member State concerned to make a non-interest-bearing deposit of an appropriate size with the Union until the Council of Ministers considers that the excessive deficit has been corrected;
(d)
to impose fines of an appropriate size.
The President of the Council of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament of the measures
adopted.
11.
The Council of Ministers shall abrogate some or all of the measures referred to in paragraph 6
and paragraphs 8 to 10 if it considers the excessive deficit in the Member State concerned to have
been corrected. If the Council of Ministers has previously made public recommendations, it shall
state publicly, as soon as the decision under paragraph 8 has been abrogated, that there is no longer
an excessive deficit in the Member State concerned.
12.
The rights to bring actions provided for in Articles III-265 and III-266 may not be exercised
within the framework of paragraphs 1 to 6 or paragraphs 8 and 9.
13.
Further provisions relating to the implementation of the procedure described in this Article are
set out in the Protocol on the excessive deficit procedure.
A European law of the Council of Ministers shall lay down the appropriate measures to replace the
said Protocol. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European
Parliament and the European Central Bank.
Subject to the other provisions of this paragraph, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the
Commission, shall adopt European regulations or decisions laying down detailed rules and
definitions for the application of the said Protocol. It shall act after consulting the European
Parliament.

SECTION 2. MONETARY POLICY

Article III-77
1.
The primary objective of the European System of Central Banks shall be to maintain
price stability. Without prejudice to this objective, the European System of Central Banks shall
support the general economic policies in the Union in order to contribute to the achievement of its
objectives as laid down in Article I-3. The European System of Central Banks shall act in
accordance with the principle of an open market economy with free competition, favouring an
efficient allocation of resources, and in compliance with the principles set out in Article III-69.
2.
The basic tasks to be carried out through the European System of Central Banks shall be:
(a)
to define and implement the Union's monetary policy;
(b)
to conduct foreign-exchange operations consistent with Article III-228;
(c)
to hold and manage the official foreign reserves of the Member States;
(d)
to promote the smooth operation of payment systems.
3.
Paragraph 2(c) shall be without prejudice to the holding and management by the governments
of Member States of foreign-exchange working balances.
4.
The European Central Bank shall be consulted:
(a)
on any proposed Union act in its fields of competence;
(b)
by national authorities regarding any draft legislative provision in its fields of competence,
but within the limits and under the conditions set out by the Council of Ministers in
accordance with the procedure laid down in Article III-79(6).
The European Central Bank may submit opinions to the Union institutions, bodies or agencies or to
national authorities on matters in its fields of competence.
5.
The European System of Central Banks shall contribute to the smooth conduct of policies
pursued by the competent authorities relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions and
the stability of the financial system.
6.
European laws may confer upon the European Central Bank specific tasks concerning policies
relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions and other financial institutions with the exception of insurance undertakings. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the European Central Bank.

Article III-78
1.
The European Central Bank shall have the exclusive right to authorise the issue of euro bank notes in the Union. The European Central Bank and the national central banks may issue such notes. Only the bank notes issued by the European Central Bank and the national central banks shall have the status of legal tender within the Union.
2.
Member States may issue euro coins subject to approval by the European Central Bank of the
volume of the issue. The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt
European regulations laying down measures to harmonise the denominations and technical
specifications of all coins intended for circulation to the extent necessary to permit their smooth
circulation within the Union. The Council of Ministers shall act after consulting the European
Parliament and the European Central Bank.

Article III-79
1.
The European System of Central Banks shall be composed of the European Central Bank and of the national central banks.
2.
The European Central Bank shall have legal personality.
3.
The European System of Central Banks shall be governed by the decision-making bodies of the European Central Bank, which shall be the Governing Council and the Executive Board.
4.
The Statute of the European System of Central Banks is laid down in the Protocol on the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank.
5.
Articles 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 17, 18, 19.1, 22, 23, 24, 26, 32.2, 32.3, 32.4, 32.6, 33.1(a) and 36 of the
Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank may be amended
by European laws:
(a)
either on a proposal from the Commission after consultation of the European Central Bank;
(b)
or on a recommendation from the European Central Bank after consultation of the
Commission.
6.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt the European regulations and decisions laying down the
measures referred to in Articles 4, 5.4, 19.2, 20, 28.1, 29.2, 30.4 and 34.3 of the Statute of
the System of European Central Banks and the European Central Bank. It shall act after consulting
the European Parliament:
(a)
either on a proposal from the Commission after consulting the European Central Bank;
(b)
or on a recommendation from the European Central Bank after consulting the Commission.

Article III-80
When exercising the powers and carrying out the tasks and duties conferred upon them by the Constitution and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central
Bank, neither the European Central Bank, nor a national central bank, nor any member of their
decision-making bodies shall seek or take instructions from Union institutions, bodies or agencies,
from any government of a Member State or from any other body. The Union institutions, bodies or
agencies and the governments of the Member States undertake to respect this principle and not to
seek to influence the members of the decision-making bodies of the European Central Bank or of
the national central banks in the performance of their tasks.

Article III-81
Each Member State shall ensure that its national legislation, including the statutes of its national central bank, is compatible with the Constitution and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank.

Article III-82
1.
In order to carry out the tasks entrusted to the European System of Central Banks, the
European Central Bank shall, in accordance with the Constitution and under the conditions laid
down in the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank,
adopt:
(a)
European regulations to the extent necessary to implement the tasks defined in Article 3.1,
first indent, Articles 19.1, 22 and 25.2 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks
and the European Central Bank and in cases which shall be laid down in European regulations
and decisions as referred to in Article III-79(6);
(b)
European decisions necessary for carrying out the tasks entrusted to the European System of
Central Banks under the Constitution and the Statute of the European System of
Central Banks and the European Central Bank;
(c)
recommendations and opinions.
2.
The European Central Bank may decide to publish its European decisions, recommendations
and opinions.
3.
The Council of Ministers shall, under the procedure laid down in Article III-79(6), adopt the
European regulations establishing the limits and conditions under which the European Central Bank
shall be entitled to impose fines or periodic penalty payments on undertakings for failure to comply
with obligations under its European regulations and decisions.

Article III-83
Without prejudice to the powers of the European Central Bank, a European law or framework law
shall lay down the measures necessary for use of the euro as the single currency of the Member
States. Such law or framework law shall be adopted after consultation of the European Central
Bank.

SECTION 3. INSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS

Article III-84
1.
The Governing Council of the European Central Bank shall comprise the members of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank and the Governors of the national central banks of the Member States without a derogation as referred to in Article III-91.
2.
(a)
The Executive Board shall comprise the President, the Vice-President and four other members.
(b)
The President, the Vice-President and the other members of the Executive Board shall be appointed from among persons of recognised standing and professional experience in monetary or banking matters by common accord of the governments of the Member States at the level of Heads of State or Government, on a recommendation from the Council of Ministers, after it has consulted the European Parliament and the Governing Council of the European Central Bank.
Their term of office shall be eight years and shall not be renewable.
Only nationals of Member States may be members of the Executive Board.

Article III-85
1.
The President of the Council of Ministers and a member of the Commission may participate,
without having the right to vote, in meetings of the Governing Council of the European Central
Bank.
The President of the Council of Ministers may submit a motion for deliberation to the Governing
Council of the European Central Bank.
2.
The President of the European Central Bank shall be invited to participate in meetings of the
Council of Ministers when it is discussing matters relating to the objectives and tasks of the
European System of Central Banks.
3.
The European Central Bank shall address an annual report on the activities of the
European System of Central Banks and on the monetary policy of both the previous and the current
year to the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission, and also to the
European Council. The President of the European Central Bank shall present this report to the
Council of Ministers and to the European Parliament, which may hold a general debate on that
basis.
The President of the European Central Bank and the other members of the Executive Board may, at
the request of the European Parliament or on their own initiative, be heard by the competent
committees of the European Parliament.

Article III-86
1.
In order to promote coordination of the policies of Member States to the full extent needed for
the functioning of the internal market, an Economic and Financial Committee is hereby set up.
2.
The Committee shall have the following tasks:
(a)
to deliver opinions at the request of the Council of Ministers or of the Commission, or on its
own initiative, for submission to those institutions;
(b)
to keep under review the economic and financial situation of the Member States and of the Union and to report on it regularly to the Council of Ministers and to the Commission, in particular with regard to financial relations with third countries and international institutions;
(c)
without prejudice to Article III-247, to contribute to the preparation of the work of the
Council of Ministers referred to in Article III-48, Article III-71(2), (3), (4) and (6),
Articles III-72, III-74, III-75 and III-76, Article III-77(6), Article III-78(2), Article III-79(5)
and (6), Articles III-83 and III-90, Article III-92(2) and (3), Article III-95, Article III-96(2)
and (3) and Articles III-224 and III-228, and to carry out other advisory and preparatory tasks
assigned to it by the Council of Ministers;
(d)
to examine, at least once a year, the situation regarding the movement of capital and the
freedom of payments, as they result from the application of the Constitution and of Union
acts; the examination shall cover all measures relating to capital movements and payments;
the Committee shall report to the Commission and to the Council of Ministers on the outcome
of this examination.
The Member States, the Commission and the European Central Bank shall each appoint no more
than two members of the Committee.
3.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt a European
decision laying down detailed provisions concerning the composition of the Economic and
Financial Committee. It shall act after consulting the European Central Bank and the Committee.
The President of the Council of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament of that decision.
4.
In addition to the tasks set out in paragraph 2, if and as long as there are Member States with a
derogation as referred to in Article III-91, the Committee shall keep under review the monetary and
financial situation and the general payments system of those Member States and report regularly to
the Council of Ministers and to the Commission on the matter.

Article III-87
For matters within the scope of Article III-71(4), Article III-76 with the exception of paragraph 13, Articles III-83, III-90 and III-91, Article III-92(3) and Article III-228, the Council of Ministers or a Member State may request the Commission to make a recommendation or a proposal, as
appropriate. The Commission shall examine this request and submit its conclusions to the Council
of Ministers without delay.

SECTION 3a. PROVISIONS SPECIFIC TO MEMBER STATES WHICH ARE PART OF THE EURO AREA

Article III-88
1.
In order to ensure that economic and monetary union works properly, and in accordance with
the relevant provisions of the Constitution, measures specific to those Member States which are
members of the euro area shall be adopted:
(a)
to strengthen the coordination of their budgetary discipline and surveillance of it;
(b)
to set out economic policy guidelines for them, while ensuring that they are compatible with
those adopted for the whole of the Union and are kept under surveillance.
2.
For those measures set out in paragraph 1, only members of the Council of Ministers
representing Member States which are part of the euro area shall vote. A qualified majority shall be defined as the majority of the votes of the representatives of the Member States which are part of the euro area, representing at least three fifths of their population. Unanimity of those members of the Council of Ministers shall be required for an act requiring unanimity.

Article III-89
Arrangements for meetings between ministers of those Member States which are part of the euro area shall be laid down in the Protocol on the Euro Group.

Article III-90
1.
In order to secure the euro's place in the international monetary system, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Central Bank, shall adopt a European decision establishing common positions on matters of particular interest for economic and monetary union within the competent international financial institutions and conferences.
2.
For the measures referred to in paragraph 1, only members of the Council of Ministers
representing Member States which are part of the euro area shall vote. A qualified majority shall be
defined as the majority of the votes of the representatives of the Member States which are part of
the euro area, representing at least three fifths of their population. Unanimity of those members of
the Council of Ministers shall be required for an act requiring unanimity.
3.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt appropriate
measures to ensure unified representation within the international financial institutions and
conferences. The procedural provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall apply.

SECTION 4. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Article III-91
1.
Member States which the Council of Ministers has decided do not fulfil the necessary
conditions for the adoption of the euro shall hereinafter be referred to as "Member States with a
derogation".
2.
The following provisions of the Constitution shall not apply to Member States with a
derogation:
(a)
adoption of the parts of the broad economic-policy guidelines which concern the euro area
generally (Article III-71(2));
(b)
coercive means of remedying excessive deficits (Article III-76(9) and (10));
(c)
the objectives and tasks of the European System of Central Banks (Article III-77(1), (2), (3)
and (5));
(d)
issue of the euro (Article III-78);
(e)
acts of the European Central Bank (Article III-82);
(f)
measures governing the use of the euro (Article III-83);
(g)
monetary agreements and other measures relating to exchange-rate policy (Article III-228);
(h)
appointment of members of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank
(Article III-84(2)(b)).
In the Articles referred to above, "Member States" shall therefore mean Member States without a
derogation.
3.
Under Chapter IX of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European
Central Bank, Member States with a derogation and their national central banks are excluded from
rights and obligations within the European System of Central Banks.
4.
The voting rights of members of the Council of Ministers representing Member States with a
derogation shall be suspended for the adoption by the Council of Ministers of the measures referred
to in the Articles listed in paragraph 2. A qualified majority shall be defined as a majority of the votes of the representatives of the Member States without a derogation, representing at least
three fifths of their population. Unanimity of those Member States shall be required for any act
requiring unanimity.

Article III-92
1.
At least once every two years, or at the request of a Member State with a derogation, the Commission and the European Central Bank shall report to the Council of Ministers on the progress
made by the Member States with a derogation in fulfilling their obligations regarding the
achievement of economic and monetary union. These reports shall include an examination of the
compatibility between each of these Member States' national legislation, including the statutes of its national central bank, and Articles III-80 and III-81 and the Statute of the European System of
Central Banks and the European Central Bank. The reports shall also examine whether a high
degree of sustainable convergence has been achieved, by analysing how far each of these Member
States has fulfilled the following criteria:
(a)
the achievement of a high degree of price stability; this will be apparent from a rate of
inflation which is close to that of, at most, the three best performing Member States in terms
of price stability;
(b)
the sustainability of the government financial position; this will be apparent from having
achieved a government budgetary position without a deficit that is excessive as determined in
accordance with Article III-76(6);
(c)
the observance of the normal fluctuation margins provided for by the exchange-rate
mechanism for at least two years, without devaluing against the euro;
(d)
the durability of convergence achieved by the Member State with a derogation and of its
participation in the exchange-rate mechanism, being reflected in the long-term interest-rate
levels.
The four criteria mentioned in this paragraph and the relevant periods over which they are to be
respected are developed further in the Protocol on the convergence criteria. The reports of the
Commission and the European Central Bank shall also take account of the results of the integration
of markets, the situation and development of the balances of payments on current account and an
examination of the development of unit labour costs and other price indices.
2.
After consulting the European Parliament and after discussion in the European Council, the
Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt a European decision
establishing which Member States with a derogation fulfil the necessary conditions on the basis of
the criteria set out in paragraph 1, and shall abrogate the derogations of the Member States
concerned.
3.
If it is decided, according to the procedure set out in paragraph 2, to abrogate a derogation, the
Council of Ministers shall, on a proposal from the Commission, with the unanimity of the members
representing Member States without a derogation and the Member State concerned, adopt the
European regulations or decisions irrevocably fixing the rate at which the euro is to be substituted
for the currency of the Member State concerned, and laying down the other measures necessary for
the introduction of the euro as the single currency in that Member State. The Council of Ministers
shall act after consulting the European Central Bank.

Article III-93
1.
If and as long as there are Member States with a derogation, and without prejudice to Article III-79(3), the General Council of the European Central Bank referred to in Article 45 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank shall be constituted as a third decision-making body of the European Central Bank.
2.
If and as long as there are Member States with a derogation, the European Central Bank shall, as regards those Member States:
(a)
strengthen cooperation between the national central banks;
(b)
strengthen the coordination of the monetary policies of the Member States, with the aim of ensuring price stability;
(c)
monitor the functioning of the exchange-rate mechanism;
(d)
hold consultations concerning issues falling within the competence of the national central banks and affecting the stability of financial institutions and markets;
(e)
carry out the former tasks of the European Monetary Cooperation Fund, previously taken over by the European Monetary Institute.

Article III-94
Each Member State with a derogation shall treat its exchange-rate policy as a matter of common
interest. In so doing, it shall take account of the experience acquired in cooperation within the
framework of the exchange-rate mechanism.

Article III-95
1.
Where a Member State with a derogation is in difficulties or is seriously threatened with
difficulties as regards its balance of payments either as a result of an overall disequilibrium in its balance of payments, or as a result of the type of currency at its disposal, and where such difficulties are liable in particular to jeopardise the functioning of the internal market or the implementation of the common commercial policy, the Commission shall immediately investigate the position of the State in question and the action which, making use of all the means at its disposal, that State has taken or may take in accordance with the Constitution. The Commission shall state what measures it recommends the Member State concerned to adopt.
If the action taken by a Member State with a derogation and the measures suggested by the
Commission do not prove sufficient to overcome the difficulties which have arisen or which
threaten, the Commission shall, after consulting the Economic and Financial Committee,
recommend to the Council of Ministers the granting of mutual assistance and appropriate methods.
The Commission shall keep the Council of Ministers regularly informed of the situation and of how
it evolves.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall grant such mutual assistance; it shall adopt European
regulations or decisions laying down the conditions and details of such assistance, which may take
such forms as:
(a)
a concerted approach to or within any other international organisations to which Member
States with a derogation may have recourse;
(b)
measures needed to avoid deflection of trade where the Member State with a derogation
which is in difficulties maintains or reintroduces quantitative restrictions against
third countries;
(c)
the granting of limited credits by other Member States, subject to their agreement.
3.
If the mutual assistance recommended by the Commission is not granted by the Council of
Ministers or if the mutual assistance granted and the measures taken are insufficient, the
Commission shall authorise the Member State with a derogation which is in difficulties to take
protective measures, the conditions and details of which the Commission shall determine.
Such authorisation may be revoked and such conditions and details may be changed by the Council
of Ministers.

Article III-96
1.
Where a sudden crisis in the balance of payments occurs and an act within the meaning of Article III-95(2) is not immediately adopted, a Member State with a derogation may, as a precaution, take the necessary protective measures. Such measures must cause the least possible disturbance in the functioning of the internal market and must not be wider in scope than is strictly necessary to remedy the sudden difficulties which have arisen.
2.
The Commission and the other Member States shall be informed of such protective measures not later than when they enter into force. The Commission may recommend to the Council of Ministers the granting of mutual assistance under Article III-95.
3.
After the Commission has delivered an opinion and the Economic and Financial Committee
has been consulted, the Council of Ministers may adopt a decision stipulating that the Member State
concerned shall amend, suspend or abolish the protective measures referred to above.

CHAPTER III. POLICIES IN OTHER SPECIFIC AREAS

SECTION 1. EMPLOYMENT

Article III-97
The Union and the Member States shall, in accordance with this Section, work towards developing
a coordinated strategy for employment and particularly for promoting a skilled, trained and
adaptable workforce and labour markets responsive to economic change with a view to achieving
the objectives defined in Article I-3.

Article III-98
1.
Member States, through their employment policies, shall contribute to the achievement of the
objectives referred to in Article III-97 in a way consistent with the broad guidelines of the economic
policies of the Member States and of the Union adopted pursuant to Article III-71(2).
2.
Member States, having regard to national practices related to the responsibilities of the social
partners, shall regard promoting employment as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate
their action in this respect within the Council of Ministers, in accordance with Article III-100.

Article III-99
1.
The Union shall contribute to a high level of employment by encouraging cooperation between Member States and by supporting and, if necessary, complementing their action. In doing so, the competences of the Member States shall be respected.
2.
The objective of a high level of employment shall be taken into consideration in the
formulation and implementation of Union policies and activities.

Article III-100
1.
The European Council shall each year consider the employment situation in the Union and
adopt conclusions thereon, on the basis of a joint annual report by the Council of Ministers and the Commission.
2.
On the basis of the conclusions of the European Council, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall each year adopt guidelines which the Member States shall take into account in their employment policies. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament, the Committee of the Regions, the Economic and Social Committee and the Employment Committee.
These guidelines shall be consistent with the broad guidelines adopted pursuant to Article III-71(2).
3.
Each Member State shall provide the Council of Ministers and the Commission with an
annual report on the principal steps taken to implement its employment policy in the light of the
guidelines for employment as referred to in paragraph 2.
4.
The Council of Ministers, on the basis of the reports referred to in paragraph 3 and having
received the views of the Employment Committee, shall each year carry out an examination of the
implementation of the employment policies of the Member States in the light of the guidelines for
employment. The Council of Ministers, on a recommendation from the Commission, may adopt
recommendations which it shall address to Member States.
5.
On the basis of the results of that examination, the Council of Ministers and the Commission
shall make a joint annual report to the European Council on the employment situation in the Union
and on the implementation of the guidelines for employment.

Article III-101
European laws or framework laws may establish incentive measures designed to encourage cooperation between Member States and to support their action in the field of employment through initiatives aimed at developing exchanges of information and best practices, providing comparative analysis and advice as well as promoting innovative approaches and evaluating experiences, in particular by recourse to pilot projects. They shall be adopted after consultation with the Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
Such European laws or framework laws shall not include harmonisation of the laws and regulations
of the Member States.

Article III-102
The Council of Ministers shall, by simple majority, adopt a European decision establishing an
Employment Committee with advisory status to promote coordination between Member States on
employment and labour market policies. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
The tasks of the Committee shall be:
(a)
to monitor the employment situation and employment policies in the Member States and the Union;
(b)
without prejudice to Article III-247, to formulate opinions at the request of either the Council
of Ministers or the Commission or on its own initiative, and to contribute to the preparation of
the Council of Ministers proceedings referred to in Article III-100.
In fulfilling its mandate, the Committee shall consult the social partners.
Each Member State and the Commission shall appoint two members of the Committee.

SECTION 2. SOCIAL POLICY

Article III-103
The Union and the Member States, having in mind fundamental social rights such as those set out in
the European Social Charter signed at Turin on 18 October 1961 and in the 1989 Community
Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, shall have as their objectives the promotion
of employment, improved living and working conditions, so as to make possible their
harmonisation while the improvement is being maintained, proper social protection, dialogue
between the social partners, the development of human resources with a view to lasting high
employment and the combating of exclusion.
To this end the Union and the Member States shall act taking account of the diverse forms of
national practices, in particular in the field of contractual relations, and the need to maintain the competitiveness of the Union economy.
They believe that such a development will ensue not only from the functioning of the internal
market, which will favour the harmonisation of social systems, but also from the procedures
provided for in the Constitution and from the approximation of provisions laid down by law,
regulation or administrative action.

Article III-104
1.
With a view to achieving the objectives of Article III-103, the Union shall support and
complement the activities of the Member States in the following fields:
(a)
improvement in particular of the working environment to protect workers' health and safety;
(b)
working conditions;
(c)
social security and social protection of workers;
(d)
protection of workers where their employment contract is terminated;
(e)
the information and consultation of workers;
(f)
representation and collective defence of the interests of workers and employers, including
co-determination, subject to paragraph 6;
(g)
conditions of employment for third-country nationals legally residing in Union territory;
(h)
the integration of persons excluded from the labour market, without prejudice to Article III-183;
(i)
equality between men and women with regard to labour market opportunities and treatment
at work;
(j)
the combating of social exclusion;
(k)
the modernisation of social protection systems without prejudice to point (c).
2.
To this end:
(a)
European laws or framework laws may establish measures designed to encourage cooperation
between Member States through initiatives aimed at improving knowledge, developing
exchanges of information and best practices, promoting innovative approaches and evaluating
experiences, excluding any harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States;
(b)
in the fields referred to in paragraph 1(a) to (i), European framework laws may establish
minimum requirements for gradual implementation, having regard to the conditions and
technical rules obtaining in each of the Member States. Such European framework laws shall
avoid imposing administrative, financial and legal constraints in a way which would hold
back the creation and development of small and medium-sized undertakings.
In all cases, such European laws or framework laws shall be adopted after consultation of the
Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
3.
By way of derogation from paragraph 2, in the fields referred to in paragraph 1(c), (d), (f)
and (g), European laws or framework laws shall be adopted by the Council of Ministers acting
unanimously after consulting the European Parliament, the Committee of the Regions and the
Economic and Social Committee.
The Council of Ministers may, on a proposal from the Commission, adopt a European decision
making the ordinary legislative procedure applicable to paragraph 1(d), (f) and (g). It shall act
unanimously after consulting the European Parliament.
4.
A Member State may entrust the social partners, at their joint request, with the
implementation of European framework laws adopted pursuant to paragraph 2.
In this case, it shall ensure that, no later than the date on which a European framework law must be transposed, the social partners have introduced the necessary measures by agreement, the Member State concerned being required to take any necessary step enabling it at any time to be in a
position to guarantee the results imposed by that framework law.
5.
The European laws and framework laws adopted pursuant to this Article:
(a)
shall not affect the right of Member States to define the fundamental principles of their
social security systems and must not significantly affect the financial equilibrium thereof;
(b)
shall not prevent any Member State from maintaining or introducing more stringent protective
measures compatible with the Constitution.
6.
This Article shall not apply to pay, the right of association, the right to strike or the right to
impose lock-outs.

Article III-105
1.
The Commission shall have the task of promoting the consultation of the social partners at
Union level and shall adopt any relevant measure to facilitate their dialogue by ensuring balanced
support for the parties.
2.
To this end, before submitting proposals in the social policy field, the Commission shall
consult the social partners on the possible direction of Union action.
3.
If, after such consultation, the Commission considers Union action desirable, it shall consult
the social partners on the content of the envisaged proposal. The social partners shall forward to the Commission an opinion or, where appropriate, a recommendation.
4.
On the occasion of such consultation, the social partners may inform the Commission of their
wish to initiate the process provided for in Article III-106. The duration of the procedure shall not exceed nine months, unless the social partners concerned and the Commission decide jointly to
extend it.

Article III-106
1.
Should the social partners so desire, the dialogue between them at Union level may lead to
contractual relations, including agreements.
2.
Agreements concluded at Union level shall be implemented either in accordance with the procedures and practices specific to the social partners and the Member States or, in matters covered by Article III-104, at the joint request of the signatory parties, by European regulations or
decisions adopted by the Council of Ministers on a proposal from the Commission. The European Parliament shall be informed.
Where the agreement in question contains one or more provisions relating to one of the areas for
which unanimity is required by virtue of Article III-104(3), the Council of Ministers shall act
unanimously.

Article III-107
With a view to achieving the objectives of Article III-103 and without prejudice to the other
provisions of the Constitution, the Commission shall encourage cooperation between the
Member States and facilitate the coordination of their action in all social policy fields under this Section, particularly in matters relating to:
(a)
employment;
(b)
labour law and working conditions;
(c)
basic and advanced vocational training;
(d)
social security;
(e)
prevention of occupational accidents and diseases;
(f)
occupational hygiene;
(g)
the right of association and collective bargaining between employers and workers.
To this end, the Commission shall act in close contact with Member States by making studies,
delivering opinions and arranging consultations both on problems arising at national level and on
those of concern to international organisations, in particular initiatives aiming at the establishment of guidelines and indicators, the organisation of exchange of best practice, and the preparation of the necessary elements for periodic monitoring and evaluation. The European Parliament shall be kept fully informed.
Before delivering the opinions provided for in this Article, the Commission shall consult the
Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-108
1.
Each Member State shall ensure that the principle of equal pay for male and female workers for equal work or work of equal value is applied.
2.
For the purpose of this Article, "pay" means the ordinary basic or minimum wage or salary
and any other consideration, whether in cash or in kind, which the worker receives directly or
indirectly, in respect of his employment, from his employer.
Equal pay without discrimination based on sex means:
(a)
that pay for the same work at piece rates shall be calculated on the basis of the same unit of
measurement;
(b)
that pay for work at time rates shall be the same for the same job.
3.
European laws or framework laws shall establish measures to ensure the application of the
principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment
and occupation, including the principle of equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. They
shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
4.
With a view to ensuring full equality in practice between men and women in working life, the
principle of equal treatment shall not prevent any Member State from maintaining or adopting
measures providing for specific advantages in order to make it easier for the under-represented
sex to pursue a vocational activity or to prevent or compensate for disadvantages in professional
careers.

Article III-109
Member States shall endeavour to maintain the existing equivalence between paid holiday schemes.

Article III-110
The Commission shall draw up a report each year on progress in achieving the objectives of
Article III-103, including the demographic situation in the Union. It shall forward the report to the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-111
The Council of Ministers shall, by a simple majority, adopt a European decision establishing a
Social Protection Committee with advisory status to promote cooperation on social protection
policies between Member States and with the Commission. The Council of Ministers shall act after
consulting the European Parliament.
The tasks of the Committee shall be:
(a)
to monitor the social situation and the development of social protection policies in the
Member States and the Union;
(b)
to promote exchanges of information, experience and good practice between Member States
and with the Commission;
(c)
without prejudice to Article III-247, to prepare reports, formulate opinions or undertake other
work within its fields of competence, at the request of either the Council of Ministers or the
Commission or on its own initiative.
In fulfilling its mandate, the Committee shall establish appropriate contacts with the social partners.
Each Member State and the Commission shall appoint two members of the Committee.

Article III-112
The Commission shall include a separate chapter on social developments within the Union in its
annual report to the European Parliament.
The European Parliament may invite the Commission to draw up reports on any particular problems
concerning social conditions.

Subsection 1. The European Social Fund

Article III-113
In order to improve employment opportunities for workers in the internal market and to contribute
thereby to raising the standard of living, a European Social Fund is hereby established; it shall aim to render the employment of workers easier and to increase their geographical and occupational
mobility within the Union, and to facilitate their adaptation to industrial changes and to changes in production systems, in particular through vocational training and retraining.

Article III-114
The Commission shall administer the Fund.
It shall be assisted in this task by a Committee presided over by a Member of the Commission and
composed of representatives of Member States, trade unions and employers' organisations.

Article III-115
Implementing measures relating to the European Social Fund shall be enacted in European laws.
Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the Economic
and Social Committee.

SECTION 3. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND TERRITORIAL COHESION

Article III-116
In order to promote its overall harmonious development, the Union shall develop and pursue its
action leading to the strengthening of its economic, social and territorial cohesion.
In particular, the Union shall aim at reducing disparities between the levels of development of the
various regions and the backwardness of the least favoured regions or islands, including rural areas.

Article III-117
Member States shall conduct their economic policies and shall coordinate them in such a way as, in
addition, to attain the objectives set out in Article III-116. The formulation and implementation of the Union's policies and action and the implementation of the internal market shall take into account those objectives and shall contribute to their achievement. The Union shall also support the achievement of these objectives by the action it takes through the Structural Funds (European
Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund, Guidance Section; European Social Fund; European
Regional Development Fund), the European Investment Bank and the other existing financial
instruments.
The Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the
Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee every three years on the
progress made towards achieving economic, social and territorial cohesion and on the manner in
which the various means provided for in this Article have contributed to it. This report shall, if
necessary, be accompanied by appropriate proposals.
European laws or framework laws may establish any specific measure outside the Funds, without
prejudice to measures adopted within the framework of the Union's other policies. They shall be
adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-118
The European Regional Development Fund is intended to help to redress the main regional
imbalances in the Union through participation in the development and structural adjustment of
regions whose development is lagging behind and in the conversion of declining industrial regions.

Article III-119
Without prejudice to Article III-120, European laws shall define the tasks, priority objectives and
the organisation of the Structural Funds ­ which may involve grouping the Funds ­, the general
rules applicable to them and the provisions necessary to ensure their effectiveness and the
coordination of the Funds with one another and with the other existing financial instruments.
A Cohesion Fund set up by a European law shall provide a financial contribution to projects in the
fields of environment and trans-European networks in the area of transport infrastructure.
In all cases, such European laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the
Regions and the Economic and Social Committee. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously
until 1 January 2007.

Article III-120
Implementing measures relating to the European Regional Development Fund shall be enacted in
European laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and
the Economic and Social Committee.
With regard to the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund, Guidance Section, and the
European Social Fund, Articles III-127 and III-115 respectively shall apply.

SECTION 4. AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES

Article III-121
The Union shall define and implement a common agriculture and fisheries policy. "Agricultural products" means the products of the soil, of stockfarming and of fisheries and products of first-stage processing directly related to these products. References to the common agricultural policy or to agriculture, and the use of the term "agricultural", shall be understood as also referring to fisheries, having regard to the specific characteristics of this sector.

Article III-122
1.
The internal market shall extend to agriculture and trade in agricultural products.
2.
Save as otherwise provided in Articles III-123 to III-128, the rules laid down for the
establishment of the internal market shall apply to agricultural products.
3.
The products listed in Annex I (*) shall be subject to Articles III-123 to III-128.
(*) This Annex, which corresponds to Annex I to the TEC, is to be drawn up.
4.
The operation and development of the internal market for agricultural products must be
accompanied by the establishment of a common agricultural policy.
Article III-123
1.
The objectives of the common agricultural policy shall be:
(a)
to increase agricultural productivity by promoting technical progress and by ensuring the
rational development of agricultural production and the optimum utilisation of the factors of
production, in particular labour;
(b)
thus to ensure a fair standard of living for the agricultural community, in particular by
increasing the individual earnings of persons engaged in agriculture;
(c)
to stabilise markets;
(d)
to assure the availability of supplies;
(e)
to ensure that supplies reach consumers at reasonable prices.
2.
In working out the common agricultural policy and the special methods for its application,
account shall be taken of:
(a)
the particular nature of agricultural activity, which results from the social structure of
agriculture and from structural and natural disparities between the various agricultural
regions;
(b)
the need to effect the appropriate adjustments by degrees;
(c)
the fact that in the Member States agriculture constitutes a sector closely linked with the
economy as a whole.

Article III-124
1.
In order to attain the objectives set out in Article III-123, a common organisation of
agricultural markets shall be established.
This organisation shall take one of the following forms, depending on the product concerned:
(a)
common rules on competition;
(b)
compulsory coordination of the various national market organisations;
(c)
a European market organisation.
2.
The common organisation established in accordance with paragraph 1 may include all
measures required to attain the objectives set out in Article III-123, in particular regulation of
prices, aids for the production and marketing of the various products, storage and carryover
arrangements and common machinery for stabilising imports or exports.
The common organisation shall be limited to pursuit of the objectives set out in Article III-123 and
shall exclude any discrimination between producers or consumers within the Union.
Any common price policy shall be based on common criteria and uniform methods of calculation.
3.
In order to enable the common organisation referred to in paragraph 1 to attain its objectives,
one or more agricultural guidance and guarantee funds may be set up.
Article III-125
To enable the objectives set out in Article III-123 to be attained, provision may be made within the
framework of the common agricultural policy for measures such as:
(a)
an effective coordination of efforts in the spheres of vocational training, of research and of the
dissemination of agricultural knowledge; this may include joint financing of projects or
institutions;
(b)
joint measures to promote consumption of certain products.

Article III-126
1.
The Section relating to rules on competition shall apply to production of and trade in agricultural products only to the extent determined by European laws or framework laws in accordance with Article III-127(2), having regard to the objectives set out in Article III-123.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt a European regulation or decision authorising the granting of aid:
(a)
for the protection of enterprises handicapped by structural or natural conditions;
(b)
within the framework of economic development programmes.

Article III-127
1.
The Commission shall submit proposals for working out and implementing the common agricultural policy, including the replacement of the national organisations by one of the forms of common organisation provided for in Article III-124(1), and for implementing the measures referred to in this Section.
These proposals shall take account of the interdependence of the agricultural matters mentioned in
this Section.
2.
European laws or framework laws shall establish the common organisation of the market
provided for in Article III-124(1) and the other provisions necessary for the achievement of the
objectives of the common agricultural policy and the common fisheries policy. They shall be
adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
3.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt the European
regulations or decisions on fixing prices, levies, aid and quantitative limitations and on the fixing and allocation of fishing opportunities.
4.
In accordance with paragraph 2, the national market organisations may be replaced by the
common organisation provided for in Article III-124(1) if:
(a)
the common organisation offers Member States which are opposed to this measure and which
have an organisation of their own for the production in question equivalent safeguards for the
employment and standard of living of the producers concerned, account being taken of the
adjustments that will be possible and the specialisation that will be needed with the passage of
time;
(b)
such an organisation ensures conditions for trade within the Union similar to those existing in
a national market.
5.
If a common organisation for certain raw materials is established before a common
organisation exists for the corresponding processed products, such raw materials as are used for
processed products intended for export to third countries may be imported from outside the Union.

Article III-128
Where in a Member State a product is subject to a national market organisation or to internal rules
having equivalent effect which affect the competitive position of similar production in another
Member State, a countervailing charge shall be applied by Member States to imports of this product
coming from the Member State where such organisation or rules exist, unless that State applies a
countervailing charge on export. The Commission shall adopt European regulations or decisions fixing the amount of these charges at the level required to redress the balance; it may also authorise other measures, the conditions and details of which it shall determine.

SECTION 5. ENVIRONMENT

Article III-129
1.
Union policy on the environment shall contribute to pursuit of the following objectives:
(a)
preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;
(b)
protecting human health;
(c)
prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;
(d)
promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental
problems.
2.
Union policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account
the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union. It shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay.
In this context, harmonisation measures answering environmental protection requirements shall
include, where appropriate, a safeguard clause allowing Member States to take provisional steps, for non-economic environmental reasons, subject to a procedure of inspection by the Union.
3.
In preparing its policy on the environment, the Union shall take account of:
(a)
available scientific and technical data;
(b)
environmental conditions in the various regions of the Union;
(c)
the potential benefits and costs of action or lack of action;
(d)
the economic and social development of the Union as a whole and the balanced development
of its regions.
4.
Within their respective spheres of competence, the Union and the Member States shall
cooperate with third countries and with the competent international organisations. The
arrangements for the Union's cooperation may be the subject of agreements between the Union and
the third parties concerned, which shall be negotiated and concluded in accordance with Article III-272.
The previous subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States' competence to negotiate in
international bodies and to conclude international agreements.

Article III-130
1.
European laws or framework laws shall establish what action is to be taken in order to achieve
the objectives referred to in Article III-129. They shall be adopted after consultation of the
Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
2.
By way of derogation from paragraph 1 and without prejudice to Article III-65, the Council of
Ministers shall unanimously adopt European laws or framework laws establishing:
(a)
measures primarily of a fiscal nature;
(b)
measures affecting:
(i)
town and country planning;
(ii)
quantitative management of water resources or affecting, directly or indirectly, the
availability of those resources;
(iii) land use, with the exception of waste management;
(c)
measures significantly affecting a Member State's choice between different energy sources
and the general structure of its energy supply.
The Council of Ministers may unanimously adopt a European decision making the ordinary
legislative procedure applicable to the matters referred to in the first subparagraph of this paragraph.
In all cases, the Council of Ministers shall act after consulting the European Parliament, the
Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
3.
General action programmes which set out priority objectives to be attained shall be enacted by
European laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and
the Economic and Social Committee.
The measures necessary for the implementation of these programmes shall be adopted under the
terms of paragraph 1 or paragraph 2, according to the case.
4.
Without prejudice to certain measures adopted by the Union, the Member States shall finance
and implement the environment policy.
5.
Without prejudice to the principle that the polluter should pay, if a measure based on
paragraph 1 involves costs deemed disproportionate for the public authorities of a Member State,
such measure shall provide in appropriate form for:
(a)
temporary derogations, and/or
(b)
financial support from the Cohesion Fund.

Article III-131
The protective provisions adopted pursuant to Article III-130 shall not prevent any Member State
from maintaining or introducing more stringent protective provisions. Such provisions must be
compatible with the Constitution. They shall be notified to the Commission.

SECTION 6. CONSUMER PROTECTION

Article III-132
1.
In order to promote the interests of consumers and to ensure a high level of consumer protection, the Union shall contribute to protecting the health, safety and economic interests of consumers, as well as to promoting their right to information, education and to organise themselves in order to safeguard their interests.
2.
The Union shall contribute to the attainment of the objectives referred to in paragraph 1
through:
(a)
measures adopted pursuant to Article III-65 in the context of the completion of the internal
market;
(b)
measures which support, supplement and monitor the policy pursued by the Member States.
3.
The measures referred to in paragraph 2(b) shall be enacted by European laws or framework
laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
4.
Acts adopted pursuant to paragraph 3 shall not prevent any Member State from maintaining or
introducing more stringent protective provisions. Such provisions must be compatible with the
Constitution. They shall be notified to the Commission.

SECTION 7. TRANSPORT

Article III-133
The objectives of the Constitution shall, in matters governed by this Title, be pursued within the
framework of a common transport policy.

Article III-134
European laws or framework laws shall implement Article III-133, taking into account the distinctive features of transport. They shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the
Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
Such European laws or framework laws shall contain:
(a)
common rules applicable to international transport to or from the territory of a Member State
or passing across the territory of one or more Member States;
(b)
the conditions under which non-resident carriers may operate transport services within a Member State;
(c)
measures to improve transport safety;
(d)
any other appropriate measure.

Article III-135
Until the European laws or framework laws referred to in the first paragraph of Article III-134 have been adopted, no Member State may, unless the Council of Ministers has unanimously adopted a
European decision granting a derogation, make the various provisions governing the subject on
1 January 1958 or, for acceding States, the date of their accession less favourable in their direct or indirect effect on carriers of other Member States as compared with carriers who are nationals of that State.

Article III-136
Aids shall be compatible with the Constitution if they meet the needs of coordination of transport or if they represent reimbursement for the discharge of certain obligations inherent in the concept of a public service.

Article III-137
Any measures adopted within the framework of the Constitution in respect of transport rates and
conditions shall take account of the economic circumstances of carriers.

Article III-138
1.
In the case of transport within the Union, discrimination which takes the form of carriers
charging different rates and imposing different conditions for the carriage of the same goods over
the same transport links on grounds of the Member State of origin or of destination of the goods
in question shall be prohibited.
2.
Paragraph 1 shall not prevent the adoption of other European laws or framework laws
pursuant to the first paragraph of Article III-134.
3.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt European
regulations or decisions for implementing paragraph 1. It shall act after consulting the European
Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee.
The Council of Ministers may in particular adopt the European regulations and decisions needed to
enable the institutions to secure compliance with the rule laid down in paragraph 1 and to ensure
that users benefit from it to the full.
4.
The Commission, acting on its own initiative or on application by a Member State, shall
investigate any cases of discrimination falling within paragraph 1 and, after consulting any
Member State concerned, adopt the necessary European decisions within the framework of the
European regulations and decisions referred to in paragraph 3.

Article III-139
1.
The imposition by a Member State, in respect of transport operations carried out within the Union, of rates and conditions involving any element of support or protection in the interest of one
or more particular undertakings or industries shall be prohibited, unless authorised by a European
decision of the Commission.
2.
The Commission, acting on its own initiative or on application by a Member State, shall
examine the rates and conditions referred to in paragraph 1, taking account in particular of the
requirements of an appropriate regional economic policy, the needs of underdeveloped areas and the
problems of areas seriously affected by political circumstances on the one hand, and of the effects
of such rates and conditions on competition between the different modes of transport on the other.
After consulting each Member State concerned, the Commission shall adopt the necessary
European decisions.
3.
The prohibition provided for in paragraph 1 shall not apply to tariffs fixed to meet
competition.

Article III-140
Charges or dues in respect of the crossing of frontiers which are charged by a carrier in addition to the transport rates shall not exceed a reasonable level after taking the costs actually incurred thereby into account.
Member States shall endeavour to reduce these costs.
The Commission may make recommendations to Member States for the application of this Article.

Article III-141
The provisions of this Section shall not form an obstacle to the application of measures taken in the Federal Republic of Germany to the extent that such measures are required in order to compensate for the economic disadvantages caused by the division of Germany to the economy of certain areas of the Federal Republic affected by that division.

Article III-142
An Advisory Committee consisting of experts designated by the governments of Member States
shall be attached to the Commission. The Commission, whenever it considers it desirable, shall
consult the Committee on transport matters.

Article III-143
1.
This Section shall apply to transport by rail, road and inland waterway.
2.
European laws or framework laws may lay down appropriate measures for sea and air
transport. They shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the
Economic and Social Committee.

SECTION 8. TRANS-EUROPEAN NETWORKS

Article III-144
1.
To help achieve the objectives referred to in Articles III-14 and III-116 and to enable citizens
of the Union, economic operators and regional and local communities to derive full benefit from the
setting-up of an area without internal frontiers, the Union shall contribute to the establishment and development of trans-European networks in the areas of transport, telecommunications and energy
infrastructures.
2.
Within the framework of a system of open and competitive markets, action by the Union shall
aim at promoting the interconnection and interoperability of national networks as well as access to
such networks. It shall take account in particular of the need to link island, landlocked and
peripheral regions with the central regions of the Union.

Article III-145
1.
In order to achieve the objectives referred to in Article III-144, the Union:
(a)
shall establish a series of guidelines covering the objectives, priorities and broad lines of
measures envisaged in the sphere of trans-European networks; these guidelines shall identify
projects of common interest;
(b)
shall implement any measures that may prove necessary to ensure the interoperability of the
networks, in particular in the field of technical standardisation;
(c)
may support projects of common interest supported by Member States, which are identified in
the framework of the guidelines referred to in point (a), particularly through feasibility
studies, loan guarantees or interest-rate subsidies; the Union may also contribute, through the
Cohesion Fund, to the financing of specific projects in Member States in the area of transport
infrastructure.
The Union's activities shall take into account the potential economic viability of the projects.
2.
The guidelines and other measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall be enacted by European
laws or framework laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the
Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
Guidelines and projects of common interest which relate to the territory of a Member State shall
require the agreement of the Member State concerned.
3.
Member States shall, in liaison with the Commission, coordinate among themselves the
policies pursued at national level which may have a significant impact on the achievement of the
objectives referred to in Article III-144. The Commission may, in close cooperation with the
Member State, take any useful initiative to promote such coordination.
4.
The Union may cooperate with third countries to promote projects of mutual interest and to
ensure the interoperability of networks.

SECTION 9. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, AND SPACE

Article III-146
1.
The Union shall aim to strengthen the scientific and technological bases of Union industry
and encourage it to become more competitive at international level, while promoting all the
research activities deemed necessary by virtue of other Chapters of the Constitution.
2.
For this purpose, the Union shall, throughout the Union, encourage undertakings, including
small and medium-sized undertakings, research centres and universities in their research and
technological development activities of high quality; it shall support their efforts to cooperate with one another, aiming, notably, at enabling researchers to cooperate freely across borders and
undertakings to exploit the internal market potential, in particular through the opening-up of
national public contracts, the definition of common standards and the removal of legal and fiscal
obstacles to that cooperation.
3.
All the Union's activities under the Constitution in the area of research and technological
development, including demonstration projects, shall be decided on and implemented in accordance
with this Section.

Article III-147
In pursuing these objectives, the Union shall carry out the following activities, complementing the
activities carried out in the Member States:
(a)
implementation of research, technological development and demonstration programmes, by
promoting cooperation with and between undertakings, research centres and universities;
(b)
promotion of cooperation in the field of the Union's research, technological development and
demonstration with third countries and international organisations;
(c)
dissemination and optimisation of the results of activities in the Union's research,
technological development and demonstration;
(d)
stimulation of the training and mobility of researchers in the Union.

Article III-148
1.
The Union and the Member States shall coordinate their research and technological development activities so as to ensure that national policies and the Union's policy are mutually consistent.
2.
In close cooperation with the Member States, the Commission may take any useful initiative
to promote the coordination referred to in paragraph 1, in particular initiatives aiming at the
establishment of guidelines and indicators, the organisation of exchange of best practice, and the
preparation of the necessary elements for periodic monitoring and evaluation. The European
Parliament shall be kept fully informed.

Article III-149
1.
A multiannual framework programme, setting out all the activities of the Union, shall be
enacted by European laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and
Social Committee.
The framework programme shall:
(a)
establish the scientific and technological objectives to be achieved by the activities provided
for in Article III-147 and fix the relevant priorities;
(b)
indicate the broad lines of such activities;
(c)
fix the maximum overall amount and the detailed rules for the Union's financial participation
in the framework programme and the respective shares in each of the activities provided for.
2.
The framework programme shall be adapted or supplemented as the situation changes.
3.
The framework programme shall be implemented through specific programmes developed
within each activity. Each specific programme shall define the detailed rules for implementing it,
fix its duration and provide for the means deemed necessary. The sum of the amounts deemed
necessary, fixed in the specific programmes, may not exceed the overall maximum amount fixed for
the framework programme and each activity.
4.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt the European
regulations or decisions establishing the specific programmes. It shall act after consulting the
European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-150
For the implementation of the multiannual framework programme, European laws or framework laws shall establish:
(a)
the rules for the participation of undertakings, research centres and universities;
(b)
the rules governing the dissemination of research results.
Such European laws or framework laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and
Social Committee.

Article III-151
In implementing the multiannual framework programme, European laws may establish
supplementary programmes involving the participation of certain Member States only, which shall
finance them subject to possible participation by the Union.
Such laws shall determine the rules applicable to supplementary programmes, particularly as
regards the dissemination of knowledge and access by other Member States. They shall be adopted
after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee and with the agreement of the Member
States concerned.

Article III-152
In implementing the multiannual framework programme, European laws may make provision,
in agreement with the Member States concerned, for participation in research and development
programmes undertaken by several Member States, including participation in the structures created
for the execution of those programmes.
Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-153
In implementing the multiannual framework programme the Union may make provision for
cooperation in the Union's research, technological development and demonstration with
third countries or international organisations.
The detailed arrangements for such cooperation may be the subject of agreements between the
Union and the third parties concerned, which shall be negotiated and concluded in accordance with
Article III-227.

Article III-154
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission may adopt European regulations or
decisions to set up joint undertakings or any other structure necessary for the efficient execution of the Union's research, technological development and demonstration programmes. It shall act after
consulting the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-155
1.
To promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies, the Union shall draw up a European space policy. To this end, it may promote joint initiatives, support research and technological development and coordinate the efforts needed for the exploration and exploitation of space.
2.
To contribute to attaining the objectives referred to in paragraph 1, European laws or
framework laws shall establish the necessary measures, which may take the form of a European
space programme.

Article III-156
At the beginning of each year the Commission shall send a report to the European Parliament and
the Council of Ministers. The report shall include information on research and technological
development activities and the dissemination of results during the previous year, and the work
programme for the current year.

SECTION 10. ENERGY

Article III-157
1.
In establishing an internal market and with regard for the need to preserve and improve the
environment, Union policy on energy shall aim to:
(a)
ensure the functioning of the energy market,
(b)
ensure security of energy supply in the Union, and
(c)
promote energy efficiency and saving and the development of new and renewable forms of
energy.
2.
The measures necessary to achieve the objectives in paragraph 1 shall be enacted in European
laws or framework laws. Such laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the
Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
Such laws or framework laws shall not affect a Member State's choice between different
energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply, without prejudice to
Article III-130(2)(c).

CHAPTER IV. AREA OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND JUSTICE

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article III-158
1.
The Union shall constitute an area of freedom, security and justice with respect for fundamental rights, taking into account the different legal traditions and systems of the Member States.
2.
It shall ensure the absence of internal border controls for persons and shall frame a common policy on asylum, immigration and external border control, based on solidarity between Member States, which is fair towards third-country nationals. For the purpose of this chapter, stateless persons shall be treated as third-country nationals.
3.
The Union shall endeavour to ensure a high level of security by measures to prevent and combat crime, racism and xenophobia, and measures for coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities, as well as by the mutual recognition of judgments in criminal matters and, if necessary, the approximation of criminal laws.
4.
The Union shall facilitate access to justice, in particular by the principle of mutual recognition
of judicial and extrajudicial decisions in civil matters.

Article III-159
The European Council shall define the strategic guidelines for legislative and operational planning
within the area of freedom, security and justice.

Article III-160
1.
Member States' national Parliaments shall ensure that the proposals and legislative initiatives
submitted under Sections 4 and 5 of this Chapter comply with the principle of subsidiarity,
in accordance with the arrangements in the Protocol on the application of the principles of
subsidiarity and proportionality.
Member States' national Parliaments may participate in the evaluation mechanisms contained in
Article III-161 and in the political monitoring of Europol and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities
in accordance with Articles III-177 and III-174.

Article III-161
Without prejudice to Articles III-265 to III-267, the Council of Ministers may, on a proposal from
the Commission, adopt European regulations or decisions laying down the arrangements whereby
Member States, in collaboration with the Commission, conduct objective and impartial evaluation
of the implementation of the Union policies referred to in this Chapter by Member States'
authorities, in particular in order to facilitate full application of the principle of mutual recognition.
The European Parliament and Member States' national Parliaments shall be informed of the content
and results of the evaluation.

Article III-162
A standing committee shall be set up within the Council of Ministers in order to ensure that
operational cooperation on internal security is promoted and strengthened within the Union.
Without prejudice to Article III-247, it shall facilitate coordination of the action of Member States' competent authorities. Representatives of the Union bodies and agencies concerned may be
involved in the proceedings of this committee. The European Parliament and Member States'
national parliaments shall be kept informed of the proceedings.

Article III-163
This Chapter shall not affect the exercise of the responsibilities incumbent upon Member States
with regard to maintaining law and order and safeguarding internal security.

Article III-164
The Council of Ministers shall adopt European regulations to ensure administrative cooperation
between the relevant departments of the Member States in the areas covered by this Chapter, as well
as between those departments and the Commission. It shall act on a Commission proposal, without
prejudice to Article III-165, and after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-165
The acts referred to in Sections 4 and 5 of this Chapter shall be adopted:
(a)
on a proposal from the Commission, or
(b)
on the initiative of a quarter of the Member States.

SECTION 2 POLICIES ON BORDER CHECKS, ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION

Article III-166
1.
The Union shall develop a policy with a view to:
(a)
ensuring the absence of any controls on persons, whatever their nationality, when crossing
internal borders;
(b) carrying out checks on persons and efficient monitoring of the crossing of external borders;
(c)
the gradual introduction of an integrated management system for external borders.
2.
For this purpose, European laws or framework laws shall establish measures concerning:
(a) the common policy on visas and other short-stay residence permits;
(b) the controls to which persons crossing external borders are subject;
(c) the conditions under which nationals of third countries shall have the freedom to travel within
the Union for a short period;
(d) any measure necessary for the gradual establishment of an integrated management system for
external borders;
(e)
the absence of any controls on persons, whatever their nationality, when crossing internal
borders.
3.
This Article shall not affect the competence of the Member States concerning the geographical demarcation of their borders, in accordance with international law.

Article III-167
1.
The Union shall develop a common policy on asylum and temporary protection with a view to
offering appropriate status to any third-country national requiring international protection and
ensuring compliance with the principle of non-refoulement. This policy must be in accordance with
the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of
refugees and other relevant treaties.
2.
For this purpose, European laws or framework laws shall lay down measures for a common
European asylum system comprising:
(a)
a uniform status of asylum for nationals of third countries, valid throughout the Union;
(b) a uniform status of subsidiary protection for nationals of third countries who, without
obtaining European asylum, are in need of international protection;
(c) a common system of temporary protection for displaced persons in the event of a massive
inflow;
(d) common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of uniform asylum or subsidiary
protection status;
(e) criteria and mechanisms for determining which Member State is responsible for considering
an application for asylum or subsidiary protection;
(f)
standards concerning the conditions for the reception of applicants for asylum or subsidiary
protection;
(g)
partnership and cooperation with third countries for the purpose of managing inflows of
people applying for asylum or subsidiary or temporary protection.
3.
In the event of one or more Member States being confronted by an emergency situation
characterised by a sudden inflow of nationals of third countries, the Council of Ministers, on a
proposal from the Commission, may adopt European regulations or decisions comprising
provisional measures for the benefit of the Member State(s) concerned. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-168
1.
The Union shall develop a common immigration policy aimed at ensuring, at all stages, the efficient management of migration flows, fair treatment of third-country nationals residing legally in Member States, and the prevention of, and enhanced measures to combat, illegal immigration and trafficking in human beings.
2.
To this end, European laws or framework laws shall establish measures in the following areas:
(a) the conditions of entry and residence, and standards on the issue by Member States of
long-term visas and residence permits, including those for the purpose of family reunion;
(b)
the definition of the rights of third-country nationals residing legally in a Member State,
including the conditions governing freedom of movement and of residence in other Member
States;
(c)
illegal immigration and unauthorised residence, including removal and repatriation of persons
residing without authorisation;
(d)
combating trafficking in persons, in particular women and children.
3.
The Union may conclude readmission agreements with third countries for the readmission of
third-country nationals residing without authorisation to their countries of origin or provenance, in
accordance with Article III-227.
4.
European laws or framework laws may establish measures to provide incentives and support
for the action of Member States with a view to promoting the integration of third-country nationals
residing legally in their territories, excluding any harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States.
5.
This Article shall not affect the right of Member States to determine volumes of admission of
third-country nationals coming from third countries to their territory in order to seek work, whether employed or self-employed.

Article III-169
The policies of the Union set out in this Section and their implementation shall be governed by the
principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility, including its financial implications,
between the Member States. Whenever necessary, the acts of the Union adopted pursuant to this
Section shall contain appropriate measures to give effect to this principle.

SECTION 3. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CIVIL MATTERS

Article III-170
1.
The Union shall develop judicial cooperation in civil matters having cross-border
implications, based on the principle of mutual recognition of judgments and decisions in
extrajudicial cases. Such cooperation may include the adoption of measures for the approximation
of the laws and regulations of the Member States.
2.
To this end, laws or framework laws shall lay down measures aimed inter alia at ensuring:
(a)
the mutual recognition and enforcement between Member States of judgments and decisions
in extrajudicial cases;
(b)
the cross-border service of judicial and extrajudicial documents;
(c)
the compatibility of the rules applicable in the Member States concerning conflict of laws and
of jurisdiction;
(d)
cooperation in the taking of evidence;
(e)
a high level of access to justice;
(f)
the proper functioning of civil proceedings, if necessary by promoting the compatibility of the
rules on civil procedure applicable in the Member States;
(g)
the development of alternative methods of dispute settlement;
(h)
support for the training of the judiciary and judicial staff.
3.
Notwithstanding paragraph 2, measures concerning family law with cross-border implications
shall be laid down in a European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers. The Council of
Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European Parliament.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt a European decision
determining those aspects of family law with cross-border implications which may be the subject of
acts adopted by the ordinary legislative procedure. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously
after consulting the European Parliament.

SECTION 4. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

Article III-171
1.
Judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the Union shall be based on the principle of mutual
recognition of judgments and judicial decisions and shall include the approximation of the laws and
regulations of the Member States in the areas referred to in paragraph 2 and in Article III-172.
European laws or framework laws shall establish measures to:
(a)
establish rules and procedures to ensure the recognition throughout the Union of all forms of
judgments and judicial decisions;
(b)
prevent and settle conflicts of jurisdiction between Member States;
(c)
encourage the training of the judiciary and judicial staff;
(d)
facilitate cooperation between judicial or equivalent authorities of the Member States in
relation to proceedings in criminal matters and the enforcement of decisions.
2.
In order to facilitate mutual recognition of judgments and judicial decisions and police and
judicial cooperation in criminal matters having a cross-border dimension, European framework laws
may establish minimum rules concerning:
(a)
mutual admissibility of evidence between Member States;
(b)
the rights of individuals in criminal procedure;
(c)
the rights of victims of crime;
(d)
any other specific aspects of criminal procedure which the Council of Ministers has identified
in advance by a European decision. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
Adoption of such minimum rules shall not prevent Member States from maintaining or introducing
a higher level of protection for the rights of individuals in criminal procedure.

Article III-172
1.
European framework laws may establish minimum rules concerning the definition of criminal offences and sanctions in the areas of particularly serious crime with cross-border dimensions resulting from the nature or impact of such offences or from a special need to combat them on a common basis.
These areas of crime are the following: terrorism, trafficking in human beings and sexual
exploitation of women and children, illicit drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking,
money laundering, corruption, counterfeiting of means of payment, computer crime and
organised crime.
On the basis of developments in crime, the Council of Ministers may adopt a European decision
identifying other areas of crime that meet the criteria specified in this paragraph. It shall act
unanimously after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
2.
If the approximation of criminal legislation proves essential to ensure the effective implementation of a Union policy in an area which has been subject to harmonisation measures,
European framework laws may establish minimum rules with regard to the definition of
criminal offences and sanctions in the area concerned.
Without prejudice to Article III-165, such framework laws shall be adopted by the same procedure
as was followed for the adoption of the harmonisation measures referred to in the preceding
subparagraph.

Article III-173
European laws or framework laws may establish measures to promote and support the action of
Member States in the field of crime prevention. Such measures shall not include the approximation
of Member States' legislative and regulatory provisions.

Article III-174
1.
Eurojust's mission shall be to support and strengthen coordination and cooperation between
national prosecuting authorities in relation to serious crime affecting two or more Member States or
requiring a prosecution on common bases, on the basis of operations conducted and information
supplied by the Member States' authorities and by Europol.
2.
European laws shall determine Eurojust's structure, workings, scope of action and tasks.
Those tasks may include:
(a)
the initiation and coordination of criminal prosecutions conducted by competent national
authorities, particularly those relating to offences against the financial interests of the Union;
(b)
the strengthening of judicial cooperation, including by resolution of conflicts of jurisdiction
and by close cooperation with the European Judicial Network.
European laws shall also determine arrangements for involving the European Parliament and
Member States' national Parliaments in the evaluation of Eurojust's activities.
3.
In the prosecutions referred to in this Article, and without prejudice to Article III-175, formal
acts of judicial procedure shall be carried out by the competent national officials.

Article III-175
1.
In order to combat serious crime having a cross-border dimension, as well as crimes affecting
the interests of the Union, a European law of the Council of Ministers may establish a European
Public Prosecutor's Office from Eurojust. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
2.
The European Public Prosecutor's Office shall be responsible for investigating, prosecuting
and bringing to judgment, where appropriate in liaison with Europol, the perpetrators of and
accomplices in serious crimes affecting more than one Member State and of offences against
the Union's financial interests, as determined by the European law provided for in paragraph 1. It
shall exercise the functions of prosecutor in the competent courts of the Member States in relation
to such offences.
3.
The European law referred to in paragraph 1 shall determine the general rules applicable to
the European Public Prosecutor's Office, the conditions governing the performance of its functions,
the rules of procedure applicable to its activities, as well as those governing the admissibility of evidence, and the rules applicable to the judicial review of procedural measures taken by it in the performance of its functions.

SECTION 5. POLICE COOPERATION

Article III-176
1.
The Union shall establish police cooperation involving all the Member States' competent
authorities, including police, customs and other specialised law enforcement services in relation to
the prevention, detection and investigation of criminal offences.
2.
To this end, European laws or framework laws may establish measures concerning:
(a)
the collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of relevant information;
(b)
support for the training of staff, and cooperation on the exchange of staff, on equipment and
on research into crime-detection;
(c)
common investigative techniques in relation to the detection of serious forms of organised
crime.
3.
A European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers may establish measures
concerning operational cooperation between the authorities referred to in this Article. The Council
of Ministers shall act unanimously after consulting the European Parliament.

Article III-177
1.
Europol's mission is to support and strengthen action by the Member States' police authorities
and other law enforcement services and their mutual cooperation in preventing and combating
serious crime affecting two or more Member States, terrorism and forms of crime which affect a
common interest covered by a Union policy.
2.
European laws shall determine Europol's structure, operation, field of action and tasks. These
tasks may include:
(a)
the collection, storage, processing, analysis and exchange of information forwarded
particularly by the authorities of the Member States or third countries or bodies;
(b)
the coordination, organisation and implementation of investigative and operational action
carried out jointly with the Member States' competent authorities or in the context of joint
investigative teams, where appropriate in liaison with Eurojust.
European laws shall also lay down the procedures for scrutiny of Europol's activities by the
European Parliament, together with Member States' national parliaments.
3.
Any operational action by Europol must be carried out in liaison and in agreement with the
authorities of the Member States whose territory is concerned. The application of coercive
measures shall be the exclusive responsibility of the competent national authorities.

Article III-178
A European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers shall lay down the conditions and
limitations under which the competent authorities of the Member States referred to in Articles III-171 and III-176 may operate in the territory of another Member State in liaison and in
agreement with the authorities of that State. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously after
consulting the European Parliament.

CHAPTER V. AREAS WHERE THE UNION MAY TAKE COORDINATING, COMPLEMENTARY OR SUPPORTING ACTION

SECTION 1. PUBLIC HEALTH

Article III-179
1.
A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation
of all the Union's policies and activities.
Action by the Union, which shall complement national policies, shall be directed towards
improving public health, preventing human illness and diseases, and obviating sources of danger to
physical and mental health. Such action shall cover the fight against the major health scourges, by
promoting research into their causes, their transmission and their prevention, as well as health
information and education.
The Union shall complement the Member States' action in reducing drugs-related health damage,
including information and prevention.
2.
The Union shall encourage cooperation between the Member States in the areas referred to in
this Article and, if necessary, lend support to their action.
Member States shall, in liaison with the Commission, coordinate among themselves their policies
and programmes in the areas referred to in paragraph 1. The Commission may, in close contact
with the Member States, take any useful initiative to promote such coordination, in particular
initiatives aiming at the establishment of guidelines and indicators, the organisation of exchange of
best practice, and the preparation of the necessary elements for periodic monitoring and evaluation.
The European Parliament shall be kept fully informed.
3.
The Union and the Member States shall foster cooperation with third countries and the
competent international organisations in the sphere of public health.
4.
European laws or framework laws shall contribute to the achievement of the objectives
referred to in this Article by establishing the following measures in order to meet common safety
concerns:
(a)
measures setting high standards of quality and safety of organs and substances of human
origin, blood and blood derivatives; these measures shall not prevent any Member State from
maintaining or introducing more stringent protective measures;
(b)
measures in the veterinary and phytosanitary fields which have as their direct objective the
protection of public health;
European laws or framework laws shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the
Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
5.
European laws or framework laws may also establish incentive measures designed to protect
and improve human health and to combat the major cross-border health scourges, excluding any
harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States. It shall be adopted after
consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
6.
For the purposes set out in this Article, the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the
Commission, may also adopt recommendations.
7.
Union action in the field of public health shall fully respect the responsibilities of the Member
States for the organisation and delivery of health services and medical care. In particular, measures
referred to in paragraph 4(a) shall not affect national provisions on the donation or medical use of
organs and blood.

SECTION 2. INDUSTRY

Article III-180
1.
The Union and the Member States shall ensure that the conditions necessary for the competitiveness of the Union's industry exist.
For that purpose, in accordance with a system of open and competitive markets, their action shall be
aimed at:
(a)
speeding up the adjustment of industry to structural changes;
(b)
encouraging an environment favourable to initiative and to the development of undertakings
throughout the Union, particularly small and medium-sized undertakings;
(c)
encouraging an environment favourable to cooperation between undertakings;
(d)
fostering better exploitation of the industrial potential of policies of innovation, research and
technological development.
2.
The Member States shall consult each other in liaison with the Commission and, where
necessary, shall coordinate their action. The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote
such coordination, in particular initiatives aiming at the establishment of guidelines and indicators,
the organisation of exchange of best practice, and the preparation of the necessary elements for
periodic monitoring and evaluation. The European Parliament shall be kept fully informed.
3.
The Union shall contribute to the achievement of the objectives set out in paragraph 1 through
the policies and activities it pursues under other provisions of the Constitution. European laws or
framework laws may establish specific measures in support of action taken in the Member States to
achieve the objectives set out in paragraph 1, excluding any harmonisation of the laws and
regulations of the Member States. They shall be adopted after consultation of the Economic and
Social Committee.
This Section shall not provide a basis for the introduction by the Union of any measure which could
lead to distortion of competition or contains tax provisions or provisions relating to the rights and
interests of employed persons.

SECTION 3. CULTURE

Article III-181
1.
The Union shall contribute to the flowering of the cultures of the Member States, while respecting their national and regional diversity and at the same time bringing the common cultural heritage to the fore.
2.
Action by the Union shall be aimed at encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, supporting and complementing their action in the following areas:
(a)
improvement of the knowledge and dissemination of the culture and history of the European
peoples;
(b)
conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage of European significance;
(c)
non-commercial cultural exchanges;
(d)
artistic and literary creation, including in the audiovisual sector.
3.
The Union and the Member States shall foster cooperation with third countries and the
competent international organisations in the sphere of culture, in particular the Council of Europe.
4.
The Union shall take cultural aspects into account in its action under other provisions of
the Constitution, in particular in order to respect and to promote the diversity of its cultures.
5.
In order to contribute to the achievement of the objectives referred to in this Article:
(a)
European laws or framework laws shall establish incentive actions, excluding any
harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States. They shall be adopted after
consultation of the Committee of the Regions;
(b)
the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt recommendations.

SECTION 4. EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL TRAINING, YOUTH AND SPORT

Article III-182
1.
The Union shall contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging
cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, by supporting and complementing their
action. It shall fully respect the responsibility of the Member States for the content of teaching and
the organisation of education systems and their cultural and linguistic diversity.
The Union shall contribute to the promotion of European sporting issues, given the social and
educational function of sport.
2.
Union action shall be aimed at:
(a)
developing the European dimension in education, particularly through the teaching and
dissemination of the languages of the Member States;
(b)
encouraging mobility of students and teachers, inter alia by encouraging the academic
recognition of diplomas and periods of study;
(c)
promoting cooperation between educational establishments;
(d)
developing exchanges of information and experience on issues common to the education
systems of the Member States;
(e)
encouraging the development of youth exchanges and of exchanges of socio-educational
instructors and encouraging the participation of young people in democratic life in Europe.
(f)
encouraging the development of distance education;
(g) developing the European dimension in sport, by promoting fairness in competitions and
cooperation between sporting bodies and by protecting the physical and moral integrity of
sportsmen and sportswomen, especially young sportsmen and sportswomen.
3.
The Union and the Member States shall foster cooperation with third countries and the
competent international organisations in the field of education, in particular the Council of Europe.
4.
In order to contribute to the achievement of the objectives referred to in this Article,
(a)
European laws or framework laws shall establish incentive actions, excluding any
harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States. They shall be adopted after
consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the Economic and Social Committee.
(b)
the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt recommendations.

Article III-183
1.
The Union shall implement a vocational training policy which shall support and complement
the action of the Member States, while fully respecting the responsibility of the Member States for
the content and organisation of vocational training.
2.
Union action shall aim to:
(a)
facilitate adaptation to industrial change, in particular through vocational training and
retraining;
(b)
improve initial and continuing vocational training in order to facilitate vocational integration
and reintegration into the labour market;
(c)
facilitate access to vocational training and encourage mobility of instructors and trainees and
particularly young people;
(d)
stimulate cooperation on training between educational or training establishments and firms;
(e)
develop exchanges of information and experience on issues common to the training systems
of the Member States.
3.
The Union and the Member States shall foster cooperation with third countries and the
competent international organisations in the sphere of vocational training.
4.
European laws or framework laws shall contribute to the achievement of the objectives
referred to in this Article, excluding any harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the
Member States. They shall be adopted after consultation of the Committee of the Regions and the
Economic and Social Committee.

SECTION 5. CIVIL PROTECTION

Article III-184
1.
The Union shall encourage cooperation between Member States in order to improve the effectiveness of systems for preventing and protecting against natural or man-made disasters within the Union.
Union action shall aim to:
(a) support and complement Member States' action at national, regional and local level in risk
prevention, in preparing their civil-protection personnel and in responding to natural or
man-made disasters;
(b) promote swift, effective operational cooperation between national civil-protection services;
(c) promote consistency in international civil-protection work.
2.
The measures necessary to help achieve the objectives referred to in paragraph 1 shall be
enacted in European laws or framework laws, excluding any harmonisation of the laws and
regulations of the Member States.

SECTION 6. ADMINISTRATIVE COOPERATION

Article III-185
1.
Effective national implementation of Union law by the Member States, which is essential for
the proper functioning of the Union, shall be regarded as a matter of common interest.
2.
The Union may support the efforts of Member States to improve their administrative capacity
to implement Union law. Such action may include facilitation of exchange of information and of
civil servants as well as supporting training schemes. No Member State shall be obliged to avail
itself of such support. European laws shall establish the necessary measures to this end, excluding
any harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States.
3.
This Article shall be without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States to implement
Union law or to the prerogatives and duties of the Commission. It shall also be without prejudice to
other provisions of the Constitution providing for administrative cooperation among the Member
States and between them and the Union.

TITLE IV. ASSOCIATION OF THE OVERSEAS COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES

Article III-186
The non-European countries and territories which have special relations with Denmark, France,
the Netherlands and the United Kingdom shall be associated with the Union. These countries and
territories (hereinafter called the "countries and territories") are listed in Annex II (*).
The purpose of association shall be to promote the economic and social development of the
countries and territories and to establish close economic relations between them and the Union as a
whole.
Association shall serve primarily to further the interests and prosperity of the inhabitants of these countries and territories in order to lead them to the economic, social and cultural development to which they aspire.

(*
) This Annex, which corresponds to Annex II to the TEC, is to be drawn up.

Article III-187
Association shall have the following objectives:
(a)
Member States shall apply to their trade with the countries and territories the same treatment
as they accord each other pursuant to the Constitution;
(b)
Each country or territory shall apply to its trade with Member States and with the other
countries and territories the same treatment as that which it applies to the European State with
which it has special relations;
(c)
Member States shall contribute to the investments required for the progressive development
of these countries and territories;
(d)
For investments financed by the Union, participation in tenders and supplies shall be open on
equal terms to all natural and legal persons who are nationals of a Member State or of one of
the countries and territories;
(e)
In relations between Member States and the countries and territories, the right of
establishment of nationals and companies or firms shall be regulated in accordance with the
provisions and procedures laid down in the Subsection relating to the right of establishment
and on a non-discriminatory basis, subject to any special measures adopted pursuant to
Article III-191.

Article III-188
1.
Customs duties on imports into the Member States of goods originating in the countries and
territories shall be prohibited in conformity with the prohibition of customs duties between
Member States provided for by the Constitution.
2.
Customs duties on imports into each country or territory from Member States or from the
other countries or territories shall be prohibited in accordance with Article III-38.
3.
The countries and territories may, however, levy customs duties which meet the needs of their
development and industrialisation or produce revenue for their budgets.
The duties referred to in the first subparagraph may not exceed the level of those imposed on
imports of products from the Member State with which each country or territory has special
relations.
4.
Paragraph 2 shall not apply to countries and territories which, by reason of the particular
international obligations by which they are bound, already apply a non-discriminatory customs
tariff.
5.
The introduction of or any change in customs duties imposed on goods imported into the
countries and territories shall not, either in law or in fact, give rise to any direct or indirect
discrimination between imports from the various Member States.

Article III-189
If the level of the duties applicable to goods from a third country on entry into a country or territory is liable, when Article III-188(1) has been applied, to cause deflections of trade to the detriment of any Member State, the latter may request the Commission to propose to the other Member States that they take the necessary steps to remedy the situation.

Article III-190
Subject to the provisions relating to public health, public security or public policy, freedom of
movement within Member States for workers from the countries and territories, and within the
countries and territories for workers from Member States, shall be regulated by measures adopted in
accordance with Article III-191.

Article III-191
The Council of Ministers shall adopt unanimously, on the basis of the experience acquired under the
association of the countries and territories with the Union, European regulations and decisions as
regards the detailed rules and the procedure for the association of the countries and territories with the Union.

Article III-192
Articles III-186 to III-191 shall apply to Greenland, subject to the specific provisions set out in the Protocol on special arrangements for Greenland.

TITLE V. THE UNION'S EXTERNAL ACTION

CHAPTER I. PROVISIONS HAVING GENERAL APPLICATION

Article III-193
1.
The Union's action on the international scene shall be guided by, and designed to advance in
the wider world, the principles which have inspired its own creation, development and enlargement:
democracy, the rule of law, the universality and indivisibility of human rights and fundamental
freedoms, respect for human dignity, equality and solidarity, and for international law in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter.
The Union shall seek to develop relations and build partnerships with third countries, and
international, regional or global organisations, which share these values. It shall promote
multilateral solutions to common problems, in particular in the framework of the United Nations.
2.
The Union shall define and pursue common policies and actions, and shall work for a high
degree of cooperation in all fields of international relations, in order to:
(a)
safeguard the common values, fundamental interests, security, independence and integrity of
the Union;
(b)
consolidate and support democracy, the rule of law, human rights and international law;
(c)
preserve peace, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, in conformity with the
principles of the United Nations Charter;
(d)
foster the sustainable economic, social and environmental development of developing
countries, with the primary aim of eradicating poverty;
(e)
encourage the integration of all countries into the world economy, including through the
progressive abolition of restrictions on international trade;
(f)
help develop international measures to preserve and improve the quality of the environment
and the sustainable management of global natural resources, in order to ensure sustainable
development;
(g) assist populations, countries and regions confronting natural or man-made disasters;
(h) promote an international system based on stronger multilateral cooperation and good global
governance.
3.
The Union shall respect the principles and pursue the objectives listed in paragraphs 1 and 2
in the development and implementation of the different areas of the Union's external action covered
by this Title and the external aspects of its other policies.
The Union shall ensure consistency between the different areas of its external action and between
these and its other policies. The Council of Ministers and the Commission, assisted by the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs, shall ensure that consistency and shall cooperate to that effect.

Article III-194
1.
On the basis of the principles and objectives referred to in Article III-193, the European Council shall identify the strategic interests and objectives of the Union. European decisions of the European Council on the strategic interests and objectives of the Union shall relate to the common foreign and security policy and to other areas of the external action of the Union. Such decisions may concern the relations of the Union with a specific country or region or may be thematic in approach. They shall define their duration, and the means to be made available by the Union and the Member States.
The European Council shall act unanimously on a recommendation from the Council of Ministers,
adopted by the latter under the arrangements laid down for each area. European decisions of the
European Council shall be implemented in accordance with the procedures provided for by the
Constitution.
2.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, for the field of common foreign and security policy,
and the Commission, for other fields of external action, may submit joint proposals to the Council
of Ministers.

CHAPTER II. COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY

Article III-195
1.
In the context of the principles and objectives of its external action, the Union shall define and
implement a common foreign and security policy covering all areas of foreign and security policy
2.
The Member States shall support the common foreign and security policy actively and
unreservedly in a spirit of loyalty and mutual solidarity.
The Member States shall work together to enhance and develop their mutual political solidarity.
They shall refrain from any action which is contrary to the interests of the Union or likely to impair
its effectiveness as a cohesive force in international relations.
The Council of Ministers and the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall ensure that these
principles are complied with.
3.
The Union shall conduct the common foreign and security policy by:
(a)
defining the general guidelines;
(b)
adopting European decisions on:
(i)
actions of the Union,
(ii)
positions of the Union,
(iii) implementation of actions and positions;
(c)
strengthening systematic cooperation between Member States in the conduct of policy.

Article III-196
1.
The European Council shall define the general guidelines for the common foreign and
security policy, including for matters with defence implications.
If international developments so require, the President of the European Council shall convene an
extraordinary meeting of the European Council in order to define the strategic lines of the Union's
policy in the face of such developments.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt the European decisions necessary for defining and
implementing the common foreign and security policy on the basis of the general guidelines and
strategic lines defined by the European Council.

Article III-197
1.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, who shall chair the Council of Ministers for Foreign
Affairs, shall contribute through his or her proposals towards the preparation of the common foreign
and security policy and shall ensure implementation of the European decisions adopted by the
European Council and the Council of Ministers.
2.
For matters relating to the common foreign and security policy, the Union shall be represented
by the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs. He or she shall conduct political dialogue on the Union's
behalf and shall express the Union's position in international organisations and at international
conferences.
3.
In fulfilling his or her mandate, the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall be assisted by a
European External Action Service. This service shall work in cooperation with the diplomatic
services of the Member States (*).

(*) See the Declaration on the creation of a European External Action Service.

Article III-198
1.
Where the international situation requires operational action by the Union, the Council of
Ministers shall adopt the necessary European decisions. Such decisions shall lay down the
objectives, the scope, the means to be made available to the Union, if necessary the duration, and
the conditions for implementation of the action.
If there is a change in circumstances having a substantial effect on a question subject to such a
European decision, the Council of Ministers shall review the principles and objectives of the action
and adopt the necessary European decisions. As long as the Council of Ministers has not acted, the
European decision on action by the Union shall stand.
2.
Such European decisions shall commit the Member States in the positions they adopt and in
the conduct of their activity.
3.
Whenever there is any plan to adopt a national position or take national action pursuant to a
European decision as referred to in paragraph 1, information shall be provided in time to allow, if
necessary, for prior consultations within the Council of Ministers. The obligation to provide prior
information shall not apply to arrangements which are merely a national transposition of European
decisions.
4.
In cases of imperative need arising from changes in the situation and failing a new European
decision, Member States may make the necessary arrangements as a matter of urgency, having
regard to the general objectives of the European decision referred to in paragraph 1. The
Member State concerned shall inform the Council of Ministers immediately of any such
arrangements.
5.
Should there be any major difficulties in implementing a European decision as referred to in
this Article, a Member State shall refer them to the Council of Ministers which shall discuss them
and seek appropriate solutions. Such solutions shall not run counter to the objectives of the action or impair its effectiveness.

Article III-199
The Council of Ministers shall adopt European decisions which shall define the approach of the
Union to a particular matter of a geographical or thematic nature. Member States shall ensure that
their national policies conform to the positions of the Union.

Article III-200
1.
Any Member State, the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, or that Minister with the
Commission's support, may refer to the Council of Ministers any question relating to the common
foreign and security policy and may submit proposals to it.
2.
In cases requiring a rapid decision, the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, of the Minister's
own motion or at the request of a Member State, shall convene an extraordinary meeting of the
Council of Ministers within forty-eight hours or, in an emergency, within a shorter period.

Article III-201
1.
European decisions referred to in this Chapter shall be adopted by the Council of Ministers
acting unanimously. Abstentions by members present in person or represented shall not prevent the
adoption of such decisions.
When abstaining in a vote, any member of the Council of Ministers may qualify its abstention by
making a formal declaration. In that case, it shall not be obliged to apply the European decision,
but shall accept that the latter commits the Union. In a spirit of mutual solidarity, the Member State concerned shall refrain from any action likely to conflict with or impede Union action based on that decision and the other Member States shall respect its position. If the members of the Council of Ministers qualifying their abstention in this way represent at least one third of the Member States representing at least one third of the population of the Union, the decision shall not be adopted.
2.
By derogation from paragraph 1, the Council of Ministers shall act by qualified majority:
(a)
when adopting European decisions on Union actions and positions on the basis of a
European decision of the European Council relating to the Union's strategic interests and
objectives, as referred to in Article III-194(1);
(b)
when adopting a decision on a Union action or position, on a proposal which the Minister has
put to it following a specific request to him or her from the European Council made on its
own initiative or that of the Minister;
(c)
when adopting any European decision implementing a Union action or position;
(d)
when adopting a European decision concerning the appointment of a special representative in
accordance with Article III-203.
If a member of the Council of Ministers declares that, for vital and stated reasons of national policy,
it intends to oppose the adoption of a European decision to be adopted by qualified majority, a vote
shall not be taken. The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs will, in close consultation with the
Member State involved, search for a solution acceptable to it. If he or she does not succeed, the
Council of Ministers may, acting by a qualified majority, request that the matter be referred to the European Council for decision by unanimity.
3.
The European Council may decide unanimously that the Council of Ministers shall act by a
qualified majority in cases other than those referred to in paragraph 2.
4.
Paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply to decisions having military or defence implications.

Article III-202
1.
When the Union has defined a common approach within the meaning of Article I-39(5), the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member States shall coordinate their activities within the Council of Ministers.
2.
The diplomatic missions of the Member States and the delegations of the Union shall cooperate in third countries and in international organisations and shall contribute to formulating and implementing a common approach.

Article III-203
The Council of Ministers shall, whenever it deems it necessary, appoint, on the initiative of the
Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, a special representative with a mandate in relation to particular policy issues. The special representative shall carry out his or her mandate under the authority of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Article III-204
The Union may conclude agreements with one or more States or international organisations
pursuant to this Chapter, in accordance with the procedure described in Article III-227.

Article III-205
1.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall consult the European Parliament on the main
aspects and the basic choices of the common foreign and security policy, including the common
security and defence policy, and shall ensure that the views of the European Parliament are duly
taken into consideration. The European Parliament shall be kept regularly informed by the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs of the development of the common foreign and security policy,
including the common security and defence policy. Special representatives may be involved in
briefing the European Parliament.
2.
The European Parliament may ask questions of the Council of Ministers and of the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs or make recommendations to them. Twice a year it shall hold a debate
on progress in implementing the common foreign and security policy, including the common
security and defence policy.

Article III-206
1.
Member States shall coordinate their action in international organisations and at international
conferences. They shall uphold the Union's positions in such fora. The Union Minister for
Foreign Affairs shall organise this coordination.
In international organisations and at international conferences where not all the Member States
participate, those which do take part shall uphold the Union's positions.
2.
Without prejudice to paragraph 1 and Article III-198(3), Member States represented in
international organisations or international conferences where not all the Member States participate shall keep the latter, as well as the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, informed of any matter of common interest.
Member States which are also members of the United Nations Security Council shall concert and
keep the other Member States and the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs fully informed.
Member States which are members of the Security Council will, in the execution of their functions,
defend the positions and the interests of the Union, without prejudice to their responsibilities under the provisions of the United Nations Charter.
When the Union has defined a position on a subject which is on the United Nations Security
Council agenda, those Member States which sit on the Security Council shall request that the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs be asked to present the Union's position.

Article III-207
The diplomatic and consular missions of the Member States and the Union delegations in third
countries and international conferences, and their representations to international organisations,
shall cooperate in ensuring that the European decisions relating to Union positions and actions
adopted by the Council of Ministers are complied with and implemented. They shall step up
cooperation by exchanging information and carrying out joint assessments.
They shall contribute to the implementation of the provisions referred to in Article I-8(2) on the
rights of European citizens to protection in the territory of a third country and the measures adopted pursuant to Article III-11.

Article III-208
Without prejudice to Article III-247, a Political and Security Committee shall monitor the
international situation in the areas covered by the common foreign and security policy and
contribute to the definition of policies by delivering opinions to the Council of Ministers at the
request of the latter, or of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, or on its own initiative. It shall also monitor the implementation of agreed policies, without prejudice to the responsibility of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Within the scope of this Chapter, this Committee shall exercise, under the responsibility of the
Council of Ministers and of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, political control and strategic
direction of crisis management operations, as defined in Article III-210.
The Council of Ministers may authorise the Committee, for the purpose and for the duration of a
crisis management operation, as determined by the Council of Ministers, to take the relevant
measures concerning the political control and strategic direction of the operation.

Article III-209
The implementation of the common foreign and security policy shall not affect the competences
listed in Articles I-12 to I-14 and I-16. Likewise, the implementation of the policies listed in those articles shall not affect the competence referred to in Article I-15.
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction to monitor compliance with this Article.

SECTION 1. THE COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

Article III-210
1.
The tasks referred to in Article I-40(1), in the course of which the Union may use civilian and
military means, shall include joint disarmament operations, humanitarian and rescue tasks, military
advice and assistance tasks, conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks, tasks of combat forces in
crisis management, including peacemaking and post-conflict stabilisation. All these tasks may
contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries in combating
terrorism in their territories.
2.
The Council of Ministers, acting unanimously, shall adopt European decisions relating to the
tasks referred to in paragraph 1, defining their objectives and scope and the general conditions for
their implementation. The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, acting under the authority of the
Council of Ministers and in close and constant contact with the Political and Security Committee,
shall ensure coordination of the civilian and military aspects of such tasks.

Article III-211
1.
Within the framework of the European decisions adopted in accordance with Article III-210,
the Council of Ministers may entrust the implementation of a task to a group of Member States
having the necessary capability and the desire to undertake the task. Those Member States in
association with the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall agree between themselves on the
management of the task.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall be regularly informed by the Member States participating in
the task of its progress. Should the completion of the task involve major new consequences or
require amendment of the objective, scope and conditions for implementation adopted by the
Council of Ministers under Article III-210, the Member States participating shall refer the matter to
the Council of Ministers forthwith. In such cases, the Council of Ministers shall adopt the
necessary European decisions.

Article III-212
1.
The European Armaments, Research and Military Capabilities Agency, subject to the
authority of the Council of Ministers, shall have as its task to:
(a) contribute to identifying the Member States' military capability objectives and evaluating
observance of the capability commitments given by the Member States;
(b) promote harmonisation of operational needs and adoption of effective, compatible
procurement methods;
(c) propose multilateral projects to fulfil the objectives in terms of military capabilities, ensure
coordination of the programmes implemented by the Member States and management of
specific cooperation programmes;
(d) support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the
study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs;
(e) contribute to identifying and, if necessary, implementing any useful measure for
strengthening the industrial and technological base of the defence sector and for improving
the effectiveness of military expenditure.
2.
The Agency shall be open to all Member States wishing to be part of it. The Council of
Ministers, acting by qualified majority, shall adopt a European decision defining the Agency's
statute, seat and operational rules. That decision should take account of the level of effective
participation in the Agency's activities. Specific groups shall be set up within the Agency bringing
together Member States engaged in joint projects. The Agency shall carry out its tasks in liaison
with the Commission where necessary.

Article III-213
1.
The Member States listed in the Protocol [title], which fulfil higher military capability
criteria and wish to enter into more binding commitments in this matter with a view to the most
demanding tasks, hereby establish structured cooperation between themselves within the meaning
of Article I-40(6). The military capability criteria and commitments which those Member States
have defined are set out in that Protocol.
2.
If a Member State wishes to participate in such cooperation at a later stage, and thus subscribe
to the obligations it imposes, it shall inform the European Council of its intention. The Council of
Ministers shall deliberate at the request of that Member State. Only the members of the Council of
Ministers that represent the Member States taking part in structured cooperation shall participate in
the vote.
3.
When the Council of Ministers adopts European decisions relating to matters covered by structured cooperation, only the members of the Council of Ministers that represent the Member States taking part in structured cooperation shall participate in the deliberations and the adoption of such decisions. The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall attend the deliberations. The representatives of the other Member States shall be duly and regularly informed by the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs of developments in structured cooperation.
4.
The Council of Ministers may ask the Member States participating in such cooperation to
carry out at Union level a task referred to in Article III-210.
5.
Notwithstanding the previous paragraphs, the appropriate provisions relating to enhanced
cooperation shall apply to the structured cooperation governed by this Article.

Article III-214
1.
The closer cooperation on mutual defence provided for in Article I-40(7) shall be open to all
Member States of the Union. A list of Member States participating in closer cooperation shall be
set out in the declaration [title]. If a Member State wishes to take part in such cooperation at a later
stage, and thus accept the obligations it imposes, it shall inform the European Council of its
intention and shall subscribe to that declaration.
2.
A Member State participating in such cooperation which is the victim of armed aggression on
its territory shall inform the other participating States of the situation and may request aid and
assistance from them. Participating Member States shall meet at ministerial level, assisted by their
representatives on the Political and Security Committee and the Military Committee.
3.
The United Nations Security Council shall be informed immediately of any armed aggression
and the measures taken as a result.
4.
This Article shall not affect the rights and obligations resulting, for the Member States
concerned, from the North Atlantic Treaty.

SECTION 2. FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

Article III-215
1.
Administrative expenditure which the provisions referred to in this Chapter entail for the
institutions shall be charged to the Union budget.
2.
Operating expenditure to which the implementation of those provisions gives rise shall also be
charged to the Union budget, except for such expenditure arising from operations having military or
defence implications and cases where the Council of Ministers decides otherwise.
In cases where expenditure is not charged to the Union's budget it shall be charged to the
Member States in accordance with the gross national product scale, unless the Council of Ministers
decides otherwise. As for expenditure arising from operations having military or defence
implications, Member States whose representatives in the Council of Ministers have made a formal
declaration under Article III-201(1), second subparagraph, shall not be obliged to contribute to the financing thereof.
3.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt a European decision establishing the specific procedures
for guaranteeing rapid access to appropriations in the Union budget for urgent financing of
initiatives in the framework of the common foreign and security policy, and in particular for
preparatory activities for tasks as referred to in Article I-40(1). It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
Preparatory activities for tasks as referred to in Article I-40(1) which are not charged to the Union budget shall be financed by a start-up fund made up of Member States' contributions.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt by a qualified majority on a proposal from the Union Minister
for Foreign Affairs European decisions establishing:
(a)
the procedures for setting up and financing the start-up fund, in particular the amounts
allocated to the fund and the procedures for reimbursement;
(b)
the procedures for administering the start-up fund;
(c)
the financial control procedures.
When it is planning a task as referred to in Article I-40(1) which cannot be charged to the Union's
budget, the Council of Ministers shall authorise the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs to use the
fund. The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall report to the Council of Ministers on the
implementation of this remit.

CHAPTER III. COMMON COMMERCIAL POLICY

Article III-216
By establishing a customs union between the Member States, the Union aims to contribute, in the
common interest, to the harmonious development of world trade, the progressive abolition of
restrictions on international trade and on foreign direct investment, and the lowering of customs and other barriers.

Article III-217
1.
The common commercial policy shall be based on uniform principles, particularly with regard
to changes in tariff rates, the conclusion of tariff and trade agreements relating to trade in goods and services and the commercial aspects of intellectual property, foreign direct investment, the achievement of uniformity in measures of liberalisation, export policy and measures to protect trade such as those to be taken in the event of dumping or subsidies. The common commercial policy
shall be conducted in the context of the principles and objectives of the Union's external action.
2.
European laws or framework laws shall establish the measures required to implement the
common commercial policy.
3.
Where agreements with one or more States or international organisations need to be
negotiated and concluded, the relevant provisions of Article III-227 shall apply. The Commission
shall make recommendations to the Council of Ministers, which shall authorise the Commission to
open the necessary negotiations. The Council of Ministers and the Commission shall be responsible
for ensuring that the agreements negotiated are compatible with internal Union policies and rules.
The Commission shall conduct these negotiations in consultation with a special committee
appointed by the Council of Ministers to assist the Commission in this task and within the
framework of such directives as the Council of Ministers may issue to it. The Commission shall
report regularly to the special committee and to the European Parliament on the progress of
negotiations.
4.
For the negotiation and conclusion of agreements in the fields of trade in services involving
the movement of persons and the commercial aspects of intellectual property, the Council of
Ministers shall act unanimously where such agreements include provisions for which unanimity is
required for the adoption of internal rules.
The Council shall also act unanimously for the negotiation and conclusion of agreements in the
field of trade in cultural and audiovisual services, where these risk prejudicing the Union's cultural and linguistic diversity.
The negotiation and conclusion of international agreements in the field of transport shall be subject to the provisions of Section 7 of Chapter III of Title III and Article III-227.
5.
The exercise of the competences conferred by this Article in the field of commercial policy
shall not affect the delimitation of internal competences between the Union and the Member States,
and shall not lead to harmonisation of legislative or regulatory provisions of Member States insofar as the Constitution excludes such harmonisation.

CHAPTER IV. COOPERATION WITH THIRD COUNTRIES AND HUMANITARIAN AID

SECTION 1. DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION

Article III-218
1.
Union policy in the sphere of development cooperation shall be conducted within the
framework of the principles and objectives of the Union's external action. The Union's
development cooperation policy and that of the Member States complement and reinforce each
other.
Union development cooperation policy shall have as its primary objective the reduction and, in the
long term, the eradication of poverty. The Union shall take account of the objectives of
development cooperation in the policies that it implements which are likely to affect developing
countries.
2.
The Union and the Member States shall comply with the commitments and take account of
the objectives they have approved in the context of the United Nations and other competent
international organisations.

Article III-219
1.
European laws or framework laws shall establish the measures necessary for the implementation of development cooperation policy, which may relate to multiannual cooperation programmes with developing countries or programmes with a thematic approach.
2.
The Union may conclude with third countries and competent international organisations any agreement helping to achieve the objectives referred to in Article III-193. Such agreements shall be negotiated and concluded in accordance with Article III-227.
The first subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States' competence to negotiate in
international bodies and to conclude international agreements.
3.
The European Investment Bank shall contribute, under the terms laid down in its Statute, to
the implementation of the measures referred to in paragraph 1.

Article III-220
1.
In order to promote the complementarity and efficiency of their action, the Union and the
Member States shall coordinate their policies on development cooperation and shall consult each
other on their aid programmes, including in international organisations and during international
conferences. They may undertake joint action. Member States shall contribute if necessary to the
implementation of Union aid programmes.
2.
The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote the coordination referred to in
paragraph 1.
3.
Within their respective spheres of competence, the Union and the Member States shall
cooperate with third countries and the competent international organisations.

SECTION 2. ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION WITH THIRD COUNTRIES

Article III-221
1.
Without prejudice to the other provisions of the Constitution, and in particular those of
Articles III-218 to III-220, the Union shall carry out economic, financial and technical cooperation
measures, including financial aid in particular, with third countries other than developing countries.
Such measures shall be consistent with the development policy of the Union and shall be carried out
within the framework of the principles and objectives of its external action. The Union's measures
and those of the Member States shall complement and reinforce each other.
2.
European laws or framework laws shall establish the measures necessary for the
implementation of paragraph 1.
3.
Within their respective spheres of competence, the Union and the Member States shall
cooperate with third countries and the competent international organisations. The arrangements for
Union cooperation may be the subject of agreements between the Union and the third parties
concerned, which shall be negotiated and concluded pursuant to Article III-227. The Council of
Ministers shall act unanimously for the association agreements referred to in Article III-226(2) and
for the agreements with the States which are candidates for accession to the Union.
The first subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States' competence to negotiate in
international bodies and to conclude international agreements.

Article III-222
When the situation in a third country requires urgent financial aid from the Union, the Council of
Ministers shall adopt the necessary European decisions on a proposal from the Commission.

SECTION 3. HUMANITARIAN AID

Article III-223
1.
The Union's operations in the field of humanitarian aid shall be conducted within the
framework of the principles and objectives of the external action of the Union. Such operations
shall be intended to provide ad hoc assistance, relief and protection for people in third countries and victims of natural or man-made disasters, in order to meet the humanitarian needs resulting from these different situations. The Union's operations and those of the Member States shall complement and reinforce each other.
2.
Humanitarian aid operations shall be conducted in compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law, in particular the principles of impartiality and non-discrimination.
3.
European laws or framework laws shall establish the measures defining the framework within which the Union's humanitarian aid operations shall be implemented.
4.
The Union may conclude with third countries and competent international organisations any
agreement helping to achieve the objectives referred to in Article III-193. Such agreements shall be negotiated and concluded pursuant to Article III-227.
The first subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States' competence to negotiate in
international bodies and to conclude international agreements.
5.
In order to establish a framework for joint contributions from young Europeans to the
humanitarian actions of the Union, a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps shall be set up.
European law shall determine the rules and operation of the Corps.
6.
The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote coordination between actions of
the Union and those of the Member States, in order to enhance the efficiency and complementarity
of Union and national humanitarian aid measures.
7.
The Union shall ensure that its humanitarian operations are coordinated and consistent with
those of international organisations and bodies, in particular those forming part of the
United Nations system.

CHAPTER V. RESTRICTIVE MEASURES

Article III-224
1.
Where a European decision on a Union position or action adopted in accordance with the
provisions on the common foreign and security policy in Chapter II of this Title provides for the
interruption or reduction, in part or completely, of economic and financial relations with one or
more third countries, the Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority on a joint proposal
from the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Commission, shall adopt the necessary
European regulations or decisions. It shall inform the European Parliament thereof.
2.
In the areas referred to in paragraph 1, the Council of Ministers may adopt restrictive
measures under the same procedure against natural or legal persons and non-State groups or bodies.

CHAPTER VI. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

Article III-225
1.
The Union may conclude agreements with one or more third countries or international
organisations where the Constitution so provides or where the conclusion of an agreement is
necessary in order to achieve, within the framework of the Union's policies, one of the objectives
fixed by the Constitution, where there is provision for it in a binding Union legislative act or where it affects one of the Union's internal acts.
2.
Agreements concluded by the Union are binding upon the institutions of the Union and on its
Member States.

Article III-226
The Union may conclude association agreements with one or more third countries or international
organisations. Such agreements shall establish an association involving reciprocal rights and
obligations, common actions and special procedures.

Article III-227
1.
Without prejudice to the specific provisions laid down in Article III-217, agreements between
the Union and third States or international organisations shall be negotiated and concluded in
accordance with the following procedure.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall authorise negotiations to be opened, adopt negotiating
directives and conclude agreements.
3.
The Commission, or the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs where the agreement exclusively
or principally relates to the common foreign and security policy, shall submit recommendations to
the Council of Ministers, which shall adopt a European decision authorising the opening of
negotiations.
4.
In connection with the European decision authorising negotiation, depending on the subject of
the future agreement, the Council of Ministers shall nominate the negotiator or leader of the Union's
negotiating team.
5.
The Council of Ministers may address negotiating directives to the Union's negotiator and
may designate a special committee in consultation with which the negotiations must be conducted.
6.
On a proposal from the negotiator, the Council of Ministers shall adopt a European decision
authorising the signing of the agreement and, if necessary, its provisional application.
7.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt a European decision concluding the agreement on a
proposal by the agreement negotiator.
Except where agreements relate exclusively to the common foreign and security policy, the Council
of Ministers shall adopt the decision referred to in the first subparagraph after consulting the
European Parliament. The European Parliament shall deliver its opinion within a time-limit which
the Council of Ministers may lay down according to the urgency of the matter. In the absence of an
opinion within that time-limit, the Council of Ministers may act.
The European Parliament's consent shall be required for:
(a)
association agreements;
(b)
Union accession to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms;
(c)
agreements establishing a specific institutional framework by organising cooperation
procedures;
(d)
agreements with important budgetary implications for the Union;
(e)
agreements covering fields to which the legislative procedure applies.
The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers may, in an urgent situation, agree upon a
time-limit for consent.
8.
When concluding an agreement, the Council of Ministers may, by way of derogation from
paragraphs 6, 7 and 10, authorise the negotiator to approve on the Union's behalf modifications to
the agreement where it provides for them to be adopted by a simplified procedure or by a body set
up by the agreement; the Council of Ministers may attach specific conditions to such authorisation.
9.
The Council of Ministers shall act by a qualified majority throughout the procedure. It shall
act unanimously when the agreement covers a field for which unanimity is required for the adoption
of a Union act as well as for association agreements and for Union accession to the
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
10.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs or the
Commission, shall adopt a European decision suspending application of an agreement and
establishing the positions to be adopted on the Union's behalf in a body set up by an agreement,
when that body is called upon to adopt acts having legal effects, with the exception of acts
supplementing or amending the institutional framework of the agreement.
11.
The European Parliament shall be immediately and fully informed at all stages of the
procedure.
12.
A Member State, the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers or the Commission may
obtain the opinion of the Court of Justice as to whether an agreement envisaged is compatible with
the provisions of the Constitution. Where the opinion of the Court of Justice is adverse, the
agreement envisaged may not enter into force unless it is amended or the Constitution is revised in
accordance with the procedure laid down in Article IV-6.

Article III-228
1.
By way of derogation from Article III-227, the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously on a
recommendation from the European Central Bank or from the Commission, following consultation
with the European Central Bank with a view to reaching a consensus compatible with the objective
of price stability and after consultation with the European Parliament, in accordance with the
procedure laid down in paragraph 3 for the arrangements there referred to, may conclude formal
agreements on a system of exchange rates for the euro in relation to currencies other than those that are legal tender within the Union.
The Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority either on a recommendation from the
Commission and after consulting the European Central Bank, or on a recommendation from the
European Central Bank and in an endeavour to reach a consensus consistent with the objective of
price stability, may adopt, adjust or abandon the central rates of the euro within the exchange-rate system. The President of the Council of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament of the adoption, adjustment or abandonment of the central rates of the euro.
2.
In the absence of an exchange-rate system in relation to one or more currencies other than
those that are legal tender within the Union as referred to in paragraph 1, the Council of Ministers, acting either on a recommendation from the Commission and after consulting the European Central Bank or on a recommendation from the European Central Bank, may formulate general orientations for exchange-rate policy in relation to these currencies. These general orientations shall be without prejudice to the primary objective of the European System of Central Banks, to maintain price stability.
3.
By way of derogation from Article III-227, where agreements on matters relating to the
monetary or exchange-rate system are to be the subject of negotiations between the Union and one
or more States or international organisations, the Council of Ministers, acting on a recommendation
from the Commission and after consulting the European Central Bank, shall decide the
arrangements for the negotiation and for the conclusion of the agreements. These arrangements
shall ensure that the Union expresses a single position. The Commission shall be fully associated
with the negotiations.
4.
Without prejudice to Union competence and agreements as regards economic and monetary
union, Member States may negotiate in international bodies and conclude international agreements.

CHAPTER VII. THE UNION'S RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THIRD COUNTRIES AND UNION DELEGATIONS

Article III-229
1.
The Union shall establish all appropriate forms of cooperation with the United Nations, the
Council of Europe, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Organisation
for Economic Cooperation and Development.
2.
It shall also maintain such relations as are appropriate with other international organisations.
3.
The Union Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Commission shall be instructed to implement
this Article.

Article III-230
1.
Union delegations in third countries and to international organisations shall represent the
Union.
2.
Union delegations shall operate under the authority of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs
and in close cooperation with Member States' diplomatic missions.

CHAPTER VIII. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLIDARITY CLAUSE

Article III-231
1.
Acting on a joint proposal by the Commission and the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, the
Council of Ministers shall adopt a European decision defining the arrangements for the
implementation of the solidarity clause referred to in Article I-42. The European Parliament shall
be informed.
2.
Should a Member State fall victim to a terrorist attack or a natural or man-made disaster, the
other Member States shall assist it at the request of its political authorities. To that end, the
Member States shall coordinate between themselves in the Council of Ministers.
3.
For the purposes of this Article, the Council of Ministers shall be assisted by the Political and
Security Committee, with the support of the structures developed in the context of the common
security and defence policy, and by the Committee provided for in Article III-162, which shall, if
necessary, submit joint opinions.
4.
The European Council shall regularly assess the threats facing the Union in order to enable
the Union to take effective action.

TITLE VI. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE UNION

CHAPTER I. PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE INSTITUTIONS

SECTION 1. THE INSTITUTIONS

Subsection 1. The European Parliament

Article III-232
1.
A European law or framework law of the Council of Ministers shall establish the necessary measures for the election of the Members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage in
accordance with a uniform procedure in all Member States or in accordance with principles
common to all Member States.
The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously on a proposal from and after obtaining the consent
of the European Parliament, which shall act by a majority of its component members. This law or
framework law shall not enter into force until it has been approved by the Member States in
accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
2.
A European law of the European Parliament shall lay down the regulations and general
conditions governing the performance of the duties of its Members. The European Parliament shall
act on its own initiative after seeking an opinion from the Commission and with the approval of the
Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously on all rules or conditions
relating to the taxation of Members or former Members.
3.
Throughout the 2004-2009 Parliament, the composition of the European Parliament shall be
as set out in the Protocol on the representation of citizens in the European Parliament.

Article III-233
A European law shall lay down the regulations governing political parties at European level referred
to in Article I-45(4), and in particular the rules regarding their funding.

Article III-234
The European Parliament may, acting by a majority of its component Members, request the
Commission to submit any appropriate proposal on matters on which it considers that a Union act is
required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution. If the Commission does not submit a
proposal, it shall inform the European Parliament of the reasons.

Article III-235
In the course of its duties, the European Parliament may, at the request of a quarter of its component Members, set up a temporary Committee of Inquiry to investigate, without prejudice to the powers conferred by the Constitution on other institutions or bodies, alleged contraventions or
maladministration in the implementation of Union law, except where the alleged facts are being
examined before a court and while the case is still subject to legal proceedings.
The temporary Committee of Inquiry shall cease to exist on the submission of its report.
A European law of the European Parliament shall lay down the detailed provisions governing the
exercise of the right of inquiry. The European Parliament shall act on its own initiative after
obtaining the approval of the Council of Ministers and of the Commission.

Article III-236
Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, shall have the right to address, individually or in association with other citizens or persons, a petition to the European Parliament on a matter which comes within the Union's fields of activity and which affects him directly.

Article III-237
1.
The European Parliament shall appoint a European Ombudsman. The European Ombudsman
shall be empowered to receive complaints from any citizen of the Union or any natural or legal
person residing or having its registered office in a Member State concerning instances of
maladministration in the activities of the Union's institutions, bodies or agencies, with the exception of the Court of Justice acting in its judicial role.
In accordance with his or her duties, the European Ombudsman shall conduct inquiries for which he
or she finds grounds, either on his or her own initiative or on the basis of complaints submitted to him or her direct or through a Member of the European Parliament, except where the alleged facts
are or have been the subject of legal proceedings. Where the European Ombudsman establishes an
instance of maladministration, he or she shall refer the matter to the institution, body or agency
concerned, which shall have a period of three months in which to inform him or her of its views.
The European Ombudsman shall then forward a report to the European Parliament and the
institution, body or agency concerned. The person lodging the complaint shall be informed of the
outcome of such inquiries.
The European Ombudsman shall submit an annual report to the European Parliament on the
outcome of his or her inquiries.
2.
The European Ombudsman shall be appointed after each election of the European Parliament
for the duration of its term of office. The European Ombudsman shall be eligible for
reappointment.
The European Ombudsman may be dismissed by the Court of Justice at the request of the
European Parliament if he or she no longer fulfils the conditions required for the performance of his or her duties or if he or she is guilty of serious misconduct.
3.
The European Ombudsman shall be completely independent in the performance of his or her
duties. In the performance of those duties he or she shall neither seek nor take instructions from
any body. The European Ombudsman may not, during his or her term of office, engage in any
other occupation, whether gainful or not.
4.
A European law of the European Parliament shall lay down the regulations and general conditions governing the performance of the European Ombudsman's duties. The European Parliament shall act on its own initiative after seeking an opinion from the Commission and with the approval of the Council of Ministers.

Article III-238
The European Parliament shall hold an annual session. It shall meet, without requiring to be
convened, on the second Tuesday in March.
The European Parliament may meet in extraordinary part-session at the request of a majority of its
component Members or at the request of the Council of Ministers or of the Commission.

Article III-239
1.
The Commission may attend all meetings of the European Parliament and shall, at its request,
be heard.
The Commission shall reply orally or in writing to questions put to it by the European Parliament or by its Members.
2.
The European Council and the Council of Ministers shall be heard by the European
Parliament in accordance with the conditions laid down in the procedural rules of the European
Council and the Rules of Procedure of the Council of Ministers.

Article III-240
Save as otherwise provided in the Constitution, the European Parliament shall act by a majority of
the votes cast. The Rules of Procedure shall determine the quorum.

Article III-241
The European Parliament shall adopt its Rules of Procedure, acting by a majority of its component
Members.
The proceedings of the European Parliament shall be published in the manner laid down in the
Constitution and its Rules of Procedure.

Article III-242
The European Parliament shall discuss in open session the annual general report submitted to it by
the Commission.

Article III-243
If a motion of censure on the activities of the Commission is tabled before it, the European Parliament shall not vote thereon until at least three days after the motion has been tabled and only by open vote.
If the motion of censure is carried by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, representing a majority of the component Members of the European Parliament, the Commission shall resign. It shall
continue to deal with current business until it is replaced in accordance with Articles I-25 and I-26.
In this case, the term of office of the Commission appointed to replace it shall expire on the date on which the term of office of the Commission which was obliged to resign would have expired.

Subsection 2. The European Council

Article III-244
1.
Where a vote is taken, any member of the European Council may also act on behalf of not
more than one other member.
Abstentions by members present in person or represented shall not prevent the adoption by the
European Council of decisions which require unanimity.
2.
The President of the European Parliament may be invited to be heard by the European
Council.
3.
The European Council shall establish its procedural rules by a simple majority. The European
Council shall be assisted by the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers.

Subsection 3. The Council of Ministers

Article III-245
1.
The Council of Ministers shall meet when convened by its President on his or her own
initiative, or at the request of one of its members or of the Commission.
2.
The European Council shall adopt by unanimity a European decision establishing the rules
governing the rotation of the Presidency of the formations of the Council of Ministers.

Article III-246
1.
Where a vote is taken, any member of the Council of Ministers may also act on behalf of not
more than one other member.
2.
Where it is required to act by a simple majority, the Council of Ministers shall act by a
majority of its members.
3.
Abstentions by members present in person or represented shall not prevent the adoption by
the Council of Ministers of acts which require unanimity.

Article III-247
1.
A committee consisting of the Permanent Representatives of the Member States shall be
responsible for preparing the work of the Council of Ministers and for carrying out the tasks
assigned to it by the latter. The Committee may adopt procedural decisions in cases provided for in
the Rules of Procedure of the Council of Ministers.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall be assisted by a General Secretariat, under the responsibility of
a Secretary-General appointed by the Council of Ministers.
The Council of Ministers shall decide on the organisation of the General Secretariat by a
simple majority.
3.
The Council of Ministers shall act by a simple majority regarding procedural matters and for
the adoption of its Rules of Procedure.

Article III-248
The Council of Ministers, acting by a simple majority, may request the Commission to undertake
any studies the Council of Ministers considers desirable for the attainment of the common
objectives, and to submit to it any appropriate proposals. If the Commission does not submit a
proposal, it shall inform the Council of Ministers of the reasons.

Article III-249
The Council of Ministers shall adopt European decisions laying down the rules governing the
committees provided for in the Constitution. It shall act by a simple majority after consulting the
Commission.

Subsection 4. The Commission

Article III-250
European Commissioners and Commissioners shall be appointed for a period of five years, subject,
if need be, to Article III-243. Only nationals of Member States may be European Commissioners or
Commissioners.

Article III-251
European Commissioners and Commissioners shall refrain from any action incompatible with their
duties. Each Member State undertakes to respect this principle and not to seek to influence the
European Commissioners and Commissioners in the performance of their tasks.
European Commissioners and Commissioners may not, during their term of office, engage in any
other occupation, whether gainful or not. When entering upon their duties they shall give a solemn
undertaking that, both during and after their term of office, they will respect the obligations arising therefrom and in particular their duty to behave with integrity and discretion as regards the acceptance, after they have ceased to hold office, of certain appointments or benefits. In the event of any breach of these obligations, the Court of Justice may, on application by the Council of Ministers, acting by a simple majority, or the Commission, rule that the person concerned be,
according to the circumstances, either compulsorily retired in accordance with Article III-253 or
deprived of his or her right to a pension or other benefits in its stead.

Article III-252
1.
Apart from normal replacement, or death, the duties of a European Commissioner or
Commissioner shall end when he or she resigns or is compulsorily retired. A European
Commissioner or Commissioner shall resign if the President so requests.
2.
A vacancy caused by resignation, compulsory retirement or death shall be filled for the
remainder of the European Commissioner or Commissioner's term of office by a new European
Commissioner or Commissioner appointed by the President of the Commission in accordance with
Articles I-25 and I-26.
3.
In the event of resignation, compulsory retirement or death, the President shall be replaced for
the remainder of his or her term of office in accordance with Article I-26(1).
4.
In the case of the resignation of all European Commissioners and Commissioners, they shall
remain in office until they have been replaced, for the remainder of their term of office, in
accordance with Articles I-25 and I-26.

Article III-253
If any European Commissioner or Commissioner no longer fulfils the conditions required for the
performance of his or her duties or if he or she has been guilty of serious misconduct, the Court
of Justice may, on application by the Council of Ministers, acting by a simple majority, or by
the Commission, compulsorily retire him or her.

Article III-254
The responsibilities incumbent upon the Commission shall be structured and allocated among its
members by its President, in accordance with Article I-26(3) of the Constitution. The President
may reshuffle the allocation of those responsibilities during the Commission's term of office.
European Commissioners and Commissioners shall carry out the duties devolved upon them by the
President under his or her authority.

Article III-255
The Commission shall act by a majority of the members of the College. The Rules of Procedure
shall determine the quorum.

Article III-256
The Commission shall adopt its Rules of Procedure so as to ensure both its own operation and that
of its departments. It shall ensure that these rules are published.

Article III-257
The Commission shall publish annually, not later than one month before the opening of the session
of the European Parliament, a general report on the activities of the Union.

Subsection 5. The Court of Justice

Article III-258
The European Court of Justice shall sit in chambers, as a Grand Chamber or as a full Court, in
accordance with the Statute of the Court of Justice.

Article III-259
The European Court of Justice shall be assisted by eight Advocates-General. Should the European
Court of Justice so request, the Council of Ministers may, acting unanimously, adopt a European
decision to increase the number of Advocates-General.
It shall be the duty of the Advocate-General, acting with complete impartiality and independence, to make, in open court, reasoned submissions on cases which, in accordance with the Statute of the
Court of Justice, require his or her involvement.

Article III-260
The Judges and Advocates-General of the European Court of Justice shall be chosen from persons
whose independence is beyond doubt and who possess the qualifications required for appointment
to the highest judicial offices in their respective countries or who are jurisconsults of recognised competence; they shall be appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States after consulting the panel provided for in Article III-262.
Every three years there shall be a partial replacement of the Judges and Advocates-General,
in accordance with the conditions laid down in the Statute of the Court of Justice.
The Judges shall elect the President of the European Court of Justice from among their number for a
term of three years. He or she may be re-elected.
The European Court of Justice shall adopt its Rules of Procedure. Those Rules shall require the
approval of the Council of Ministers.

Article III-261
The number of Judges of the High Court shall be determined by the Statute of the Court of Justice.
The Statute may provide for the High Court to be assisted by Advocates-General.
The members of the High Court shall be chosen from persons whose independence is beyond doubt
and who possess the ability required for appointment to high judicial office. They shall be
appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States after consultation of the
panel provided for in Article III-262.
The membership of the High Court shall be partially renewed every three years. Retiring members
may be reappointed.
The Judges shall elect the President of the High Court from among their number for a term of three
years. He or she may be re-elected.
The High Court shall establish its Rules of Procedure in agreement with the European
Court of Justice. The Rules shall be subject to the approval of the Council of Ministers.
Unless the Statute of the Court of Justice provides otherwise, the provisions of the Constitution
relating to the European Court of Justice shall apply to the High Court.

Article III-262
A panel shall be set up in order to give an opinion on candidates' suitability to perform the duties of Judge and Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice and the High Court before the
governments of the Member States take the decisions referred to in Articles III-260 and III-261.
The panel shall comprise seven persons chosen from among former members of the European Court
of Justice and the High Court, members of national supreme courts and lawyers of recognised
competence, one of whom shall be proposed by the European Parliament. The Council of Ministers
shall adopt a European decision establishing the panel's operating rules and a European decision
appointing its members. It shall act on the initiative of the President of the European Court of
Justice.

Article III-263
1.
The High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine at first instance actions or
proceedings referred to in Articles III-270, III-272, III-275, III-277 and III-279, with the exception of those assigned to a specialised court and those reserved in the Statute for the European Court of Justice. The Statute may provide for the High Court to have jurisdiction for other classes of action or proceeding.
Decisions given by the High Court under this paragraph may be subject to a right of appeal to the
European Court of Justice on points of law only, under the conditions and within the limits laid
down by the Statute of the Court of Justice.
2.
The High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine actions or proceedings brought
against decisions of the specialised courts set up under Article III-264.
Decisions given by the High Court under this paragraph may exceptionally be subject to review by
the European Court of Justice, under the conditions and within the limits laid down by the Statute,
where there is a serious risk of the unity or consistency of Union law being affected.
3.
The High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine questions referred for a
preliminary ruling under Article III-274, in specific areas laid down by the Statute of the Court of Justice.
Where the High Court considers that the case requires a decision of principle likely to affect the
unity or consistency of Union law, it may refer the case to the European Court of Justice for a
ruling.
Decisions given by the High Court on questions referred for a preliminary ruling may exceptionally
be subject to review by the European Court of Justice, under the conditions and within the limits
laid down by the Statute, where there is a serious risk of the unity or consistency of Union law
being affected.

Article III-264
1.
European laws may establish specialised courts attached to the High Court to hear and
determine at first instance certain classes of action or proceeding brought in specific areas. They
shall be adopted either on a proposal from the Commission after consultation of the Court of Justice or at the request of the Court of Justice after consultation of the Commission.
2.
The European law establishing a specialised court shall lay down the rules on the organisation
of the court and the extent of the jurisdiction conferred upon it.
3.
Decisions given by specialised courts may be subject to a right of appeal on points of law only
or, when provided for in the European law establishing the specialised court, a right of appeal also on matters of fact, before the High Court.
4.
The members of the specialised courts shall be chosen from persons whose independence is
beyond doubt and who possess the ability required for appointment to judicial office. They shall be
appointed by the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously.
5.
The specialised courts shall establish their Rules of Procedure in agreement with the
Court of Justice. Those Rules shall require the approval of the Council of Ministers.
6.
Unless the European law establishing the specialised court provides otherwise, the provisions
of the Constitution relating to the Court of Justice and the provisions of the Statute of the
Court of Justice shall apply to the specialised courts.

Article III-265
If the Commission considers that a Member State has failed to fulfil an obligation under the
Constitution, it shall deliver a reasoned opinion on the matter after giving the State concerned the opportunity to submit its observations.
If the State concerned does not comply with the opinion within the period laid down by the
Commission, the latter may bring the matter before the Court of Justice.

Article III-266
A Member State which considers that another Member State has failed to fulfil an obligation under
the Constitution may bring the matter before the Court of Justice.
Before a Member State brings an action against another Member State for an alleged infringement
of an obligation under the Constitution, it shall bring the matter before the Commission.
The Commission shall deliver a reasoned opinion after each of the States concerned has been given
the opportunity to submit its own case and its observations on the other party's case both orally and in writing.
If the Commission has not delivered an opinion within three months of the date on which the matter
was brought before it, the absence of such opinion shall not prevent the matter from being brought
before the Court of Justice.

Article III-267
1.
If the Court of Justice finds that a Member State has failed to fulfil an obligation under the
Constitution, the State shall be required to take the necessary measures to comply with the judgment of the Court of Justice.
2.
If the Commission considers that the Member State concerned has not taken the necessary
measures to comply with the Court's judgment, it may bring the case before the Court of Justice
after giving that State the opportunity to submit its observations. It shall specify the amount of the lump sum or penalty payment to be paid by the Member State concerned which it considers
appropriate in the circumstances.
If the Court of Justice finds that the Member State concerned has not complied with its judgment it
may impose a lump sum or penalty payment on it.
This procedure shall be without prejudice to Article III-266.
3.
When the Commission brings a case before the Court of Justice pursuant to Article III-265 on
the grounds that the State concerned has failed to fulfil its obligations to notify measures
transposing a European framework law, it may, when it deems appropriate, request that, in the
course of the same proceedings, the Court of Justice impose the payment of a lump sum or penalty
if the Court finds that there has been such a failure. If the Court of Justice complies with the
Commission's request, the payment in question shall take effect within the time limit laid down by
the Court of Justice in its judgment.

Article III-268
European laws and European regulations of the Council of Ministers may give the Court of Justice
unlimited jurisdiction with regard to the penalties provided for in them.

Article III-269
Without prejudice to the other provisions of the Constitution, a European law may confer on the
Court of Justice, to the extent that it shall determine, jurisdiction in disputes relating to the
application of acts adopted on the basis of the Constitution which create European intellectual
property rights.

Article III-270
1.
The Court of Justice shall review the legality of European laws and framework laws, of acts
of the Council of Ministers, of the Commission and of the European Central Bank, other than
recommendations and opinions, and of acts of the European Parliament intended to produce legal
effects vis-à-vis third parties. It shall also review the legality of acts of bodies or agencies of the Union intended to produce legal effects vis-à-vis third parties.
2.
It shall for this purpose have jurisdiction in actions brought by a Member State, the
European Parliament, the Council of Ministers or the Commission on grounds of lack of
competence, infringement of an essential procedural requirement, infringement of the Constitution
or of any rule of law relating to its application, or misuse of powers.
3.
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction under the same conditions in actions brought by
the Court of Auditors, by the European Central Bank and by the Committee of the Regions for the
purpose of protecting their prerogatives.
4.
Any natural or legal person may, under the same conditions, institute proceedings against an
act addressed to that person or which is of direct and individual concern to him or her, and against a regulatory act which is of direct concern to him or her and does not entail implementing measures.
5.
Acts setting up bodies and agencies of the Union may lay down specific conditions and
arrangements concerning actions brought by natural or legal persons against acts of these bodies or
agencies intended to produce legal effects.
6.
The proceedings provided for in this Article shall be instituted within two months of the
publication of the act, or of its notification to the plaintiff, or, in the absence thereof, of the day on which it came to the knowledge of the latter, as the case may be.

Article III-271
If the action is well founded the Court of Justice shall declare the act concerned to be void.
However, the Court of Justice shall, if it considers this necessary, state which of the effects of the act which it has declared void shall be considered as definitive.

Article III-272
Should the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the Commission or the European Central
Bank, in infringement of the Constitution, fail to act, the Member States and the other Institutions of the Union may bring an action before the Court of Justice to have the infringement established.
This provision shall apply, under the same conditions, to bodies and agencies of the Union which
fail to act.
The action shall be admissible only if the Institution, body or agency concerned has first been called upon to act. If, within two months of being so called upon, the Institution, agency or body
concerned has not defined its position, the action may be brought within a further period of
two months.
Any natural or legal person may, under the conditions laid down in the preceding paragraphs,
complain to the Court of Justice that an Institution, body or agency of the Union has failed to
address to that person any act other than a recommendation or an opinion.

Article III-273
The Institution or Institutions, body or agency whose act has been declared void, or whose failure to act has been declared contrary to the Constitution, shall be required to take the necessary measures to comply with the judgment of the Court of Justice.
This obligation shall not affect any obligation which may result from the application of the
second paragraph of Article III-337.

Article III-274
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction to give preliminary rulings concerning:
(a)
the interpretation of the Constitution;
(b)
the validity and interpretation of acts of the Institutions of the Union.
Where such a question is raised before any court or tribunal of a Member State, that court or
tribunal may, if it considers that a decision on the question is necessary to enable it to give
judgment, request the Court of Justice to give a ruling thereon.
Where any such question is raised in a case pending before a court or tribunal of a Member State
against whose decisions there is no judicial remedy under national law, that court or tribunal shall bring the matter before the Court of Justice.
If such a question is raised in a case pending before a court or tribunal of a Member State with
regard to a person in custody, the Court of Justice shall act with the minimum of delay.

Article III-275
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction in disputes relating to compensation for damage
provided for in the second paragraph of Article III-337.

Article III-276
At the request of the Member State concerned by a determination made by the European Council or
the Council of Ministers pursuant to Article I-58, the European Court of Justice shall have
jurisdiction solely on the procedural stipulations contained in that Article. The Court shall rule
within one month from the date of that determination.

Article III-277
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction in any dispute between the Union and its servants within the limits and under the conditions laid down in the Staff Regulations of Officials and the
Conditions of Employment of other servants of the Union.

Article III-278
The Court of Justice shall, within the limits hereinafter laid down, have jurisdiction in disputes
concerning:
(a)
the fulfilment by Member States of obligations under the Statute of the European Investment
Bank. In this connection, the Board of Directors of the Bank shall enjoy the powers conferred
upon the Commission by Article III-265;
(b)
measures adopted by the Board of Governors of the European Investment Bank. In this
connection, any Member State, the Commission or the Board of Directors of the Bank may
institute proceedings under the conditions laid down in Article III-270;
(c)
measures adopted by the Board of Directors of the European Investment Bank. Proceedings
against such measures may be instituted only by Member States or by the Commission,
under the conditions laid down in Article III-270, and solely on the grounds of
non-compliance with the procedure provided for in Article 21(2), (5), (6) and (7) of the
Statute of the Bank;
(d)
the fulfilment by national central banks of obligations under the Constitution and the Statute
of the European System of Central Banks and the European Central Bank. In this connection,
the powers of the Council of the European Central Bank in respect of national central banks
shall be the same as those conferred upon the Commission in respect of Member States by
Article III-265. If the Court of Justice finds that a national central bank has failed to fulfil an
obligation under the Constitution, that bank shall be required to take the necessary measures
to comply with the judgment of the Court of Justice.

Article III-279
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction to give judgment pursuant to any arbitration clause
contained in a contract concluded by or on behalf of the Union, whether that contract be governed
by public or private law.

Article III-280
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction in any dispute between Member States which relates to
the subject matter of the Constitution if the dispute is submitted to it under a special agreement
between the parties.

Article III-281
Save where jurisdiction is conferred on the Court of Justice by the Constitution, disputes to which
the Union is a party shall not on that ground be excluded from the jurisdiction of the courts or
tribunals of the Member States.

Article III-282
The Court of Justice shall not have jurisdiction with respect to Articles I-39 and I-40 and the
provisions of Chapter II of Title V of Part III concerning the common foreign and security policy.
However, the Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction to rule on proceedings reviewing the legality
of restrictive measures against natural or legal persons, adopted by the Council on the basis of
Article III-224, and brought in accordance with the conditions laid down in Article III-270(4).

Article III-283
In exercising its competences regarding the provisions of Sections 4 and 5 of Chapter IV of Title III concerning the area of freedom, security and justice, the Court of Justice shall have no jurisdiction to review the validity or proportionality of operations carried out by the police or other law-enforcement services of a Member State or the exercise of the responsibilities incumbent upon Member States with regard to the maintenance of law and order and the safeguarding of internal
security, where such action is a matter of national law.

Article III-284
Member States undertake not to submit a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the
Constitution to any method of settlement other than those provided for therein.

Article III-285
Notwithstanding the expiry of the period laid down in Article III-270(6), any party may, in
proceedings in which a European law or a European regulation of the Council of Ministers, of the
Commission, or of the European Central Bank is at issue, plead the grounds specified in
Article III-270(2) in order to invoke before the Court of Justice the inapplicability of that act.

Article III-286
Actions brought before the Court of Justice shall not have suspensory effect. The Court of Justice
may, however, if it considers that circumstances so require, order that application of the contested act be suspended.

Article III-287
The Court of Justice may in any cases before it prescribe any necessary interim measures.

Article III-288
The judgments of the Court of Justice shall be enforceable under the conditions laid down in
Article III-307.

Article III-289
The Statute of the Court of Justice shall be laid down in a Protocol.
A European law may amend the provisions of the Statute, with the exception of Title I and
Article 64. It shall be adopted either at the request of the Court of Justice and after consultation of the Commission, or on a proposal from the Commission and after consultation of the
Court of Justice.

Subsection 6. The Court of Auditors

Article III-290
1.
The Court of Auditors shall examine the accounts of all revenue and expenditure of the
Union. It shall also examine the accounts of all revenue and expenditure of all bodies set up by the
Union insofar as the relevant constituent instrument does not preclude such examination.
The Court of Auditors shall provide the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers with a
statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the
underlying transactions which shall be published in the Official Journal of the European Union.
This statement may be supplemented by specific assessments for each major area of Union activity.
2.
The Court of Auditors shall examine whether all revenue has been received and all
expenditure incurred in a lawful and regular manner and whether the financial management has
been sound. In doing so, it shall report in particular on any cases of irregularity.
The audit of revenue shall be carried out on the basis both of the amounts established as due and the amounts actually paid to the Union.
The audit of expenditure shall be carried out on the basis both of commitments undertaken and
payments made.
These audits may be carried out before the closure of accounts for the financial year in question.
3.
The audit shall be based on records and, if necessary, performed on the spot in the other
Institutions, on the premises of any body which manages revenue or expenditure on behalf of the
Union and in the Member States, including on the premises of any natural or legal person in receipt
of payments from the budget. In the Member States the audit shall be carried out in liaison with
national audit bodies or, if these do not have the necessary powers, with the competent national
departments. The Court of Auditors and the national audit bodies of the Member States shall
cooperate in a spirit of trust while maintaining their independence. These bodies or departments
shall inform the Court of Auditors whether they intend to take part in the audit.
The other Institutions, any bodies managing revenue or expenditure on behalf of the Union, any
natural or legal person in receipt of payments from the budget, and the national audit bodies or, if
these do not have the necessary powers, the competent national departments, shall forward to the
Court of Auditors, at its request, any document or information necessary to carry out its task.
In respect of the European Investment Bank's activity in managing Union expenditure and revenue,
rights of access by the Court of Auditors to information held by the Bank shall be governed by an
agreement between the Court, the Bank and the Commission. In the absence of an agreement, the
Court shall nevertheless have access to information necessary for the audit of Union expenditure
and revenue managed by the Bank.
4.
The Court of Auditors shall draw up an annual report after the close of each financial year. It
shall be forwarded to the other Institutions and shall be published, together with the replies of these Institutions to the observations of the Court of Auditors, in the Official Journal of the
European Union
.
The Court of Auditors may also, at any time, submit observations, particularly in the form of special reports, on specific questions and deliver opinions at the request of one of the other Institutions.
It shall adopt its annual reports, special reports or opinions by a majority of its Members. However, it may establish internal chambers in order to adopt certain categories of reports or opinions under the conditions laid down by its Rules of Procedure.
It shall assist the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers in exercising their powers of
control over the implementation of the budget.
The Court of Auditors shall adopt its Rules of Procedure. Those rules shall require the approval of
the Council of Ministers.

Article III-291
1.
The Members of the Court of Auditors shall be chosen from among persons who belong or
have belonged in their respective countries to external audit bodies or who are especially qualified for this office. Their independence must be beyond doubt.
2.
The Members of the Court of Auditors shall be appointed for a term of six years. Their
term of office shall be renewable. The Council of Ministers shall adopt a European decision
establishing the list of Members drawn up in accordance with the proposals made by each
Member State. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
The Members of the Court of Auditors shall elect their President from among their number for a
term of three years. He or she may be re-elected.
3.
The Members of the Court of Auditors shall, in the Union's general interest, be completely
independent in the performance of their duties.
In the performance of these duties, they shall neither seek nor take instructions from any
government or from any other body. They shall refrain from any action incompatible with their
duties.
4.
The Members of the Court of Auditors may not, during their term of office, engage in any
other occupation, whether gainful or not. When entering upon their duties they shall give a solemn
undertaking that, both during and after their term of office, they will respect the obligations arising therefrom and in particular their duty to behave with integrity and discretion as regards the acceptance, after they have ceased to hold office, of certain appointments or benefits.
5.
Apart from normal replacement, or death, the duties of a Member of the Court of Auditors
shall end when he or she resigns, or is compulsorily retired by a ruling of the Court of Justice
pursuant to paragraph 6.
The vacancy thus caused shall be filled for the remainder of the Member's term of office.
Save in the case of compulsory retirement, Members of the Court of Auditors shall remain in office
until they have been replaced.
6.
A Member of the Court of Auditors may be deprived of his or her office or of his or her right
to a pension or other benefits in its stead only if the Court of Justice, at the request of the Court of Auditors, finds that he or she no longer fulfils the requisite conditions or meets the obligations arising from his or her office.

SECTION 2. THE UNION'S ADVISORY BODIES

Subsection 1. The Committee of the Regions

Article III-292
The number of members of the Committee of the Regions shall not exceed 350. The Council
of Ministers shall unanimously adopt a European decision determining the Committee's
composition.
The members of the Committee and an equal number of alternate members shall be appointed for
five years. Their term of office shall be renewable.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt the European decision establishing the list of members and
alternate members drawn up in accordance with the proposals made by each Member State.
When the mandate referred to in Article I-31(2) on the basis of which they were proposed comes to
an end, the term of office of members of the Committee shall terminate automatically and they shall
then be replaced for the remainder of the said term of office in accordance with the same procedure.
No member of the Committee shall at the same time be a Member of the European Parliament.

Article III-293
The Committee of the Regions shall elect its chairman and officers from among its members for a
term of two and a half years.
It shall adopt its Rules of Procedure.
The Committee shall be convened by its chairman at the request of the European Parliament, of the
Council of Ministers or of the Commission. It may also meet on its own initiative.

Article III-294
The Committee of the Regions shall be consulted by the European Parliament, by the Council
of Ministers or by the Commission where the Constitution so provides and in all other cases, in
particular those which concern cross-border cooperation, in which one of these Institutions
considers it appropriate.
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers or the Commission shall, if it considers it
necessary, set the Committee, for the submission of its opinion, a time-limit which may not be less
than one month from the date on which the chairman receives notification to this effect. Upon
expiry of the time-limit, the absence of an opinion shall not prevent further action.
Where the Economic and Social Committee is consulted pursuant to Article III-298, the Committee
of the Regions shall be informed by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers or the
Commission of the request for an opinion. It may issue an opinion on its own initiative in cases in
which it considers such action appropriate.
The opinion of the Committee, together with a record of the proceedings, shall be forwarded to the
European Parliament, to the Council of Ministers and to the Commission.

Subsection 2. The Economic and Social Committee

Article III-295
The number of members of the Economic and Social Committee shall not exceed 350. The Council
of Ministers shall unanimously adopt a European decision determining the Committee's composition.

Article III-296
The members of the Economic and Social Committee shall be appointed for five years. Their term
of office shall be renewable. The Council of Ministers shall adopt the European decision
establishing the list of members drawn up in accordance with the proposals made by each Member
State.
The Council of Ministers shall act after consulting the Commission. It may obtain the opinion of
European bodies which are representative of the various economic and social sectors and of civil
society to which the Union's activities are of concern.

Article III-297
The Economic and Social Committee shall elect its chairman and officers from among its members
for a term of two and a half years.
It shall adopt its Rules of Procedure.
It shall be convened by its chairman at the request of the European Parliament, of
the Council of Ministers or of the Commission. It may also meet on its own initiative.

Article III-298
The Economic and Social Committee must be consulted by the European Parliament, by the
Council of Ministers or by the Commission where the Constitution so provides. In all other cases, it may be consulted by these Institutions. It may also issue an opinion on its own initiative.
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers or the Commission shall, if it considers it
necessary, set the Committee, for the submission of its opinion, a time-limit which may not be
less than one month from the date on which the chairman receives notification to this effect. Upon
expiry of the time-limit, the absence of an opinion shall not prevent further action.
The opinion of the Committee together with a record of the proceedings shall be forwarded to the
European Parliament, to the Council of Ministers and to the Commission.

SECTION 3. THE EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK

Article III-299
The European Investment Bank shall have legal personality.
The members of the European Investment Bank shall be the Member States.
The Statute of the European Investment Bank is laid down in a Protocol. European laws may
amend Articles 4, 11 and 12 and Article 18(5) of the Statute of the Bank, either at the request of the European Investment Bank and after consultation of the Commission, or on a proposal from the
Commission and after consultation of the European Investment Bank.

Article III-300
The task of the European Investment Bank shall be to contribute, by having recourse to the capital
market and utilising its own resources, to the balanced and steady development of the internal
market in the Union's interest. For this purpose the Bank shall, operating on a non-profit-making
basis, grant loans and give guarantees which facilitate the financing of the following projects in all sectors of the economy:
(a)
projects for developing less-developed regions;
(b)
projects for modernising or converting undertakings or for developing fresh activities called
for by the progressive establishment of the internal market, where these projects are of such a
size or nature that they cannot be entirely financed by the various means available in the
individual Member States;
(c)
projects of common interest to several Member States which are of such a size or nature that
they cannot be entirely financed by the various means available in the individual Member
States.
In carrying out its task, the Bank shall facilitate the financing of investment programmes in
conjunction with assistance from the Structural Funds and other Union financial instruments.

SECTION 4. PROVISIONS COMMON TO UNION INSTITUTIONS, BODIES AND AGENCIES

Article III-301
1.
Where, pursuant to the Constitution, the Council of Ministers acts on a proposal from the
Commission, unanimity shall be required for an act constituting an amendment to that proposal,
subject to Articles I-54, III-302(10) and (13), and III-310.
2.
As long as the Council of Ministers has not acted, the Commission may alter its proposal at
any time during the procedures leading to the adoption of a Union act.

Article III-302
1.
Where, pursuant to the Constitution, European laws or framework laws are adopted under the
ordinary legislative procedure the following provisions shall apply.
2.
The Commission shall submit a proposal to the European Parliament and the Council
of Ministers.

First reading
3.
The European Parliament shall adopt its position at first reading and communicate it to the
Council of Ministers.
4.
If the Council of Ministers approves the European Parliament's position, the proposed act
shall be adopted.
5.
If the Council of Ministers does not approve the European Parliament's position, it shall adopt
its position at first reading and communicate it to the European Parliament.
6.
The Council of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament fully of the reasons which led
it to adopt its position at first reading. The Commission shall inform the European Parliament fully of its position.

Second reading
7.
If, within three months of such communication, the European Parliament
(a)
approves the position of the Council of Ministers at first reading or has not taken a decision,
the proposed act shall be deemed to have been adopted;
(b)
rejects, by a majority of its component members, the position of the Council of Ministers at
first reading, the proposed act shall be deemed not to have been adopted;
(c)
proposes, by a majority of its component members, amendments to the position of the Council
of Ministers at first reading, the text thus amended shall be forwarded to the Council of
Ministers and to the Commission, which shall deliver an opinion on those amendments.
8.
If, within three months of receiving the European Parliament's amendments, the Council of
Ministers, acting by a qualified majority,
(a)
approves all those amendments, the act in question shall be deemed to have been adopted;
(b)
does not approve all the amendments, the President of the Council of Ministers, in agreement
with the President of the European Parliament, shall within six weeks convene a meeting of
the Conciliation Committee.
9.
The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously on the amendments on which the Commission has delivered a negative opinion.

Conciliation
10.
The Conciliation Committee, which shall be composed of the members of the Council of Ministers or their representatives and an equal number of members representing the European Parliament, shall have the task of reaching agreement on a joint text, by a qualified majority of the members of the Council of Ministers or their representatives and by a majority of the members representing the European Parliament within six weeks of its being convened, on the basis of the positions of the Parliament and the Council of Ministers at second reading.
11.
The Commission shall take part in the Conciliation Committee's proceedings and shall take all
the necessary initiatives with a view to reconciling the positions of the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.
12.
If, within six weeks of its being convened, the Conciliation Committee does not approve the
joint text, the proposed act shall be deemed not to have been adopted.

Third reading
13.
If, within that period, the Conciliation Committee approves a joint text, the European Parliament, acting by a majority of the votes cast, and the Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority, shall each have a period of six weeks from that date in which to adopt the act in question in accordance with the joint text. If they fail to do so, the proposed act shall be deemed not to have been adopted.
14.
The periods of three months and six weeks referred to in this Article shall be extended by a
maximum of one month and two weeks respectively at the initiative of the European Parliament or
the Council of Ministers.
Special provisions
15.
Where, in the cases specifically provided for in the Constitution, a law or framework law is
submitted to the ordinary legislative procedure on the initiative of a group of Member States, on a
recommendation by the European Central Bank, or at the request of the Court of Justice or the
European Investment Bank, paragraph 2, the second sentence of paragraph 6, and paragraph 9 shall
not apply.
The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers shall communicate the proposed act to the
Commission with their positions at first and second readings.
The European Parliament or the Council of Ministers may request the opinion of the Commission
throughout the procedure. The Commission also may deliver an opinion on its own initiative. It
may, if it deems it necessary, take part in the Conciliation Committee on the terms laid down in
paragraph 11.

Article III-303
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall consult each other
and by common agreement make arrangements for their cooperation. To that end, they may,
in compliance with the Constitution, conclude interinstitutional agreements which may be of a
binding nature.

Article III-304
1.
In carrying out their missions, the Institutions, bodies and agencies of the Union shall have the
support of an open, efficient and independent European administration.
2.
Without prejudice to Article III-332, European laws shall establish specific provisions to that
end.

Article III-305
1.
The Institutions, bodies and agencies of the Union shall recognise the importance of
transparency in their work and shall, in application of Article I-49, lay down in their rules of
procedure the specific provisions for public access to documents. The Court of Justice and the
European Central Bank shall be subject to the provisions of Article I-49(3) when exercising their
administrative tasks.
2.
The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers shall ensure publication of the
documents relating to the legislative procedures.

Article III-306
1.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt European regulations and decisions determining:
(a)
the salaries, allowances and pensions of the President of the European Council, the President
of the Commission, the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, the European Commissioners and
Commissioners, the President, Members and Registrar of the European Court of Justice and
the Members and Registrar of the High Court.
(b)
the conditions of employment, in particular the salaries, allowances and pensions, of the
President and Members of the Court of Auditors.
It shall also determine any payment to be made instead of remuneration.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt European regulations and decisions determining the
allowances of the Members of the Economic and Social Committee.

Article III-307
Acts of the Council of Ministers, of the Commission or of the European Central Bank which impose
a pecuniary obligation on persons other than States shall be enforceable.
Enforcement shall be governed by the rules of civil procedure in force in the Member State in the
territory of which it is carried out. The order for its enforcement shall be appended to the decision, without other formality than verification of the authenticity of the decision, by the national authority which the government of each Member State shall designate for this purpose and shall make known to the Commission and the Court of Justice.
When these formalities have been completed on application by the party concerned, the latter
may proceed to enforcement by bringing the matter directly before the competent authority in
accordance with the national law.
Enforcement may be suspended only by a decision of the Court of Justice. However, the courts of
the country concerned shall have jurisdiction over complaints that enforcement is being carried out
in an irregular manner.

CHAPTER II. FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 1. THE MULTIANNUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK

Article III-308
1.
The multiannual financial framework shall be established for a period of at least five years
in accordance with Article I-54.
2.
The financial framework shall fix the amounts of the annual ceilings on commitment
appropriations by category of expenditure and of the annual ceiling on payment appropriations.
The categories of expenditure, few in number, shall correspond to the Union's major sectors of
activity.
3.
The financial framework shall lay down any other provisions required for the annual
budgetary procedure to run smoothly.
4.
Where no European law of the Council of Ministers establishing a new financial framework
has been adopted by the end of the previous financial framework, the ceilings and other provisions
corresponding to the last year of that framework shall be extended until such time as that law is
adopted.
5.
Throughout the procedure leading to the adoption of the financial framework, the
European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall take any measure
necessary to facilitate the successful completion of the procedure.

SECTION 2. THE UNION'S ANNUAL BUDGET

Article III-309
The financial year shall run from 1 January to 31 December.

Article III-310
European laws shall establish the Union's annual budget in accordance with the following provisions:
1.
Each Institution shall, before 1 July, draw up estimates of its expenditure. The Commission
shall consolidate these estimates in a draft budget. It shall attach thereto an opinion which may
contain different estimates.
The draft budget shall contain an estimate of revenue and an estimate of expenditure.
The Commission may amend the draft budget during the procedure until such time as the
Conciliation Committee, referred to in paragraph 5 below, is convened.
2.
The Commission shall submit the draft budget to the European Parliament and to the Council
of Ministers not later than 1 September of the year preceding that in which the budget is to be
implemented.
3.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt its position on the draft budget and forward it to the
European Parliament not later than 1 October of the year preceding that in which the budget is to be
implemented. The Council of Ministers shall inform the European Parliament fully of the reasons
which led it to adopt its position.
4.
If, within forty-two days of such communication, the European Parliament:
(a)
approves the position of the Council of Ministers or has not taken a decision, the European
budget law shall be deemed to have been adopted;
(b)
proposes amendments to the position of the Council of Ministers by a majority of its
component members, the amended text shall be forwarded to the Council of Ministers and to
the Commission. The President of the European Parliament, in agreement with the President
of the Council of Ministers, shall immediately convene a meeting of the Conciliation
Committee.
If, within ten days, the Council of Ministers informs the European Parliament that it has approved
all its amendments, the Conciliation Committee shall not meet.
5.
The Conciliation Committee, which shall be composed of the members of the Council
of Ministers or their representatives and an equal number of members representing the
European Parliament, shall have the task of reaching agreement on a joint text, by a qualified
majority of the members of the Council of Ministers or their representatives and by a majority of
the members representing the European Parliament within twenty-one days of its being convened,
on the basis of the positions of the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.
6.
The Commission shall take part in the Conciliation Committee's proceedings and shall take all
the necessary initiatives with a view to reconciling the positions of the European Parliament and
the Council of Ministers.
7.
If, within the twenty-one days referred to in paragraph 5, the Conciliation Committee
approves a joint text, the European Parliament, acting by a majority of the votes cast, and the
Council of Ministers, acting by a qualified majority, shall each have a period of fourteen days from that date in which to adopt the joint text.
8.
If, within the twenty-one days referred to in paragraph 5, the Conciliation Committee does not
approve a joint text or if the Council of Ministers rejects the joint text, the Parliament may, within fourteen days, acting by a majority of its component members and three fifths of the votes cast, confirm its amendments. Where the Parliament amendment is not confirmed, the position of the
Council of Ministers on the budget item which is the subject of the amendment shall be deemed to
be adopted.
However, if the Parliament, acting by a majority of its component members and three fifths of the
votes cast, rejects the joint text, it may ask for a new draft budget to be submitted.
9.
When the procedure provided for in this Article has been completed, the President of the
European Parliament shall declare that the European budget law has been finally adopted.

Article III-311
1.
If no European budget law has been adopted at the beginning of a financial year, a sum equivalent to not more than one twelfth of the budget appropriations entered in the European budget law for the preceding financial year may be spent each month in respect of any chapter or other subdivision of the budget in accordance with the provisions of the European law referred to in Article III-318; this arrangement shall not, however, have the effect of placing at the disposal of the Commission appropriations in excess of one twelfth of those provided for in the draft budget under
consideration.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal by the Commission and in compliance with the other
conditions laid down in paragraph 1, may adopt a European decision authorising expenditure in
excess of one twelfth. The Council of Ministers shall forward the decision immediately to the
European Parliament.
The European decision shall lay down the necessary measures relating to resources to ensure
application of this Article.
It shall enter into force thirty days following its adoption if the European Parliament, acting by a majority of its component members, has not decided to reduce this expenditure within that
time-limit.

Article III-312
In accordance with the conditions laid down by the European law referred to in Article III-318, any
appropriations, other than those relating to staff expenditure, that are unexpended at the end of the financial year may be carried forward to the next financial year only.
Appropriations shall be classified under different chapters grouping items of expenditure according
to their nature or purpose and subdivided in accordance with the European law referred to in Article III-318.
The expenditure of the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the Commission and the
Court of Justice shall be set out in separate parts of the budget, without prejudice to special
arrangements for certain common items of expenditure.

SECTION 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BUDGET AND DISCHARGE

Article III-313
The Commission shall implement the budget in cooperation with the Member States, in accordance
with the European law referred to in Article III-318, on its own responsibility and within the limits of the appropriations allocated, having regard to the principles of sound financial management.
Member States shall cooperate with the Commission to ensure that the appropriations are used in
accordance with those principles.
The European law referred to in Article III-318 shall establish the control and audit obligations of the Member States in the implementation of the budget and the resulting responsibilities.
The European law referred to in Article III-318 shall establish the responsibilities and detailed rules for each Institution concerning its part in effecting its own expenditure.
The Commission may, subject to the limits and conditions laid down by the European law referred
to in Article III-318, make transfers of appropriations between chapters or between subdivisions
within the budget.

Article III-314
The Commission shall submit annually to the European Parliament and to the Council of Ministers
the accounts of the preceding financial year relating to the implementation of the budget. The
Commission shall also forward to them a financial statement of the Union's assets and liabilities.
The Commission shall also submit to the European Parliament and to the Council of Ministers an
evaluation report on the Union's finances based on the results achieved, in particular in relation to the indications given by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers pursuant to Article III-315.

Article III-315
1.
The European Parliament, on a recommendation from the Council of Ministers, shall give a
discharge to the Commission in respect of the implementation of the budget. To this end, the
Council of Ministers and the European Parliament in turn shall examine the accounts, the financial
statement and the evaluation report referred to in Article III-314, the annual report by the Court of Auditors together with the replies of the Institutions under audit to the observations of the Court of Auditors, the statement of assurance referred to in the second subparagraph of Article III-290(1) and any relevant special reports by the Court of Auditors.
2.
Before giving a discharge to the Commission, or for any other purpose in connection with the
exercise of its powers over the implementation of the budget, the European Parliament may ask to
hear the Commission give evidence with regard to the execution of expenditure or the operation of
financial control systems. The Commission shall submit any necessary information to the
European Parliament at the latter's request.
3.
The Commission shall take all appropriate steps to act on the observations in the decisions
giving discharge and on other observations by the European Parliament relating to the execution of
expenditure, as well as on comments accompanying the recommendations on discharge adopted by
the Council of Ministers.
4.
At the request of the European Parliament or the Council of Ministers, the Commission shall
report on the measures taken in the light of these observations and comments and in particular on
the instructions given to the departments which are responsible for the implementation of the
budget. These reports shall also be forwarded to the Court of Auditors.

SECTION 4. COMMON PROVISIONS

Article III-316
The multiannual financial framework and the annual budget shall be drawn up in euro.

Article III-317
The Commission may, provided it notifies the competent authorities of the Member States
concerned, transfer into the currency of one of the Member States its holdings in the currency of
another Member State, to the extent necessary to enable them to be used for purposes which come
within the scope of the Constitution. The Commission shall as far as possible avoid making such
transfers if it possesses cash or liquid assets in the currencies which it needs.
The Commission shall deal with each Member State concerned through the authority designated by
that State. In carrying out financial operations the Commission shall employ the services of the
bank of issue of the Member State concerned or of any other financial institution approved by that
State.

Article III-318
1.
European laws shall:
(a)
lay down the financial rules which determine in particular the procedure to be adopted for
establishing and implementing the budget and for presenting and auditing accounts;
(b)
lay down rules concerning the responsibility of financial controllers, authorising officers and
accounting officers.
They shall be adopted after consultation of the Court of Auditors.
2.
The Council of Ministers shall, on a proposal from the Commission, adopt a European
regulation laying down the methods and procedure whereby the budget revenue provided under the
arrangements relating to the Union's own resources shall be made available to the Commission, and
the measures to be applied, if need be, to meet cash requirements. The Council of Ministers shall
act after consulting the European Parliament and the Court of Auditors.
3.
The Council of Ministers shall act unanimously until 1 January 2007 in all the cases referred
to by this Article.

Article III-319
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall ensure that the
financial means are made available to allow the Union to fulfil its legal obligations in respect of
third parties.

Article III-320
Regular meetings between the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and
the Commission shall be convened on the initiative of the Commission under the budgetary
procedures referred to in this Chapter. The Presidents shall take all the necessary steps to promote consultation and the reconciliation of the Institutions' positions to facilitate the implementation of the provisions of this Chapter.

SECTION 5. COMBATING FRAUD

Article III-321
1.
The Union and the Member States shall counter fraud and any other illegal activities affecting
the Union's financial interests through measures adopted in accordance with this Article. These
measures shall act as a deterrent and be such as to afford effective protection in the Member States.
2.
Member States shall take the same steps to counter fraud affecting the Union's financial
interests as they take to counter fraud affecting their own financial interests.
3.
Without prejudice to other provisions of the Constitution, the Member States shall coordinate
their action aimed at protecting the Union's financial interests against fraud. To this end they shall organise, together with the Commission, close and regular cooperation between the competent
authorities.
4.
European laws or framework laws shall lay down the necessary measures in the fields of the
prevention of and fight against fraud affecting the Union's financial interests with a view to
affording effective and equivalent protection in the Member States. They shall be adopted after
consultation of the Court of Auditors.
5.
The Commission, in cooperation with Member States, shall each year submit to the
European Parliament and to the Council of Ministers a report on the measures and provisions
adopted for the implementation of this Article.

CHAPTER III. ENHANCED COOPERATION

Article III-322
Any enhanced cooperation proposed shall comply with the Union's Constitution and law.
Such cooperation shall not undermine the internal market or economic, social and territorial
cohesion. It shall not constitute a barrier to or discrimination in trade between Member States, nor shall it distort competition between them.

Article III-323
Any enhanced cooperation proposed shall respect the competences, rights and obligations of those
Member States which do not participate in it. Those Member States shall not impede its
implementation by the participating Member States.

Article III-324
1.
When enhanced cooperation is being established, it shall be open to all Member States,
subject to compliance with any conditions of participation laid down by the European authorising
decision. It shall also be open to them at any other time, subject to compliance with the acts already adopted within that framework, in addition to any such conditions.
The Commission and the Member States participating in enhanced cooperation shall ensure that
they facilitate participation by as many Member States as possible.
2.
The Commission and, where appropriate, the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs shall keep all
members of the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament regularly informed regarding
developments in enhanced cooperation.

Article III-325
1.
Member States which wish to establish enhanced cooperation between themselves in one of the areas covered by the Constitution, with the exception of the common foreign and security policy, shall address a request to the Commission, specifying the scope and objectives of the enhanced cooperation proposed. The Commission may submit a proposal to the Council of Ministers to that effect. In the event of the Commission not submitting a proposal, it shall inform the Member States concerned of the reasons for not doing so.
Authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation shall be granted by a European decision of the
Council of Ministers, acting on a proposal from the Commission and after obtaining the consent of
the European Parliament.
2.
In the framework of the common foreign and security policy, the request of the Member
States which wish to establish enhanced cooperation between themselves shall be addressed to the
Council of Ministers. It shall be forwarded to the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, who shall
give an opinion on whether the enhanced cooperation is consistent with the Union's common
foreign and security policy, and to the Commission, which shall give its opinion in particular on
whether the enhanced cooperation proposed is consistent with other Union policies. It shall also be
forwarded to the European Parliament for information.
Authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation shall be granted by a European decision of the
Council of Ministers.

Article III-326
1.
Any Member State which wishes to participate in enhanced cooperation in one of the areas referred to in Article III-325(1) shall notify its intention to the Council of Ministers and the
Commission.
The Commission shall, within four months of the date of receipt of the notification, confirm the
participation of the Member State concerned. It shall note where necessary that any conditions of
participation have been fulfilled and shall adopt any transitional measures deemed necessary with
regard to the application of the acts already adopted within the framework of enhanced cooperation.
However, if the Commission considers that any conditions of participation have not been fulfilled, it shall indicate the arrangements to be adopted to fulfil those conditions and shall set a deadline for re-examining the request for participation. It shall re-examine the request, in accordance with the procedure set out in the preceding subparagraph. If the Commission considers that any conditions of participation have still not been met, the Member State concerned may refer the matter to the Council of Ministers, which shall act in accordance with Article I-43(3). The Council of Ministers may also adopt the transitional measures referred to in the second subparagraph on a proposal from the Commission.
2.
Any Member State which wishes to participate in enhanced cooperation in the framework of
the common foreign and security policy shall notify its intention to the Council of Ministers, the
Union Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Commission.
The Council of Ministers shall confirm the participation of the Member State concerned, after
consulting the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs. It shall note where necessary that any conditions
of participation have been fulfilled. The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Union
Minister for Foreign Affairs, may also adopt any transitional measures deemed necessary with
regard to the application of the acts already adopted within the framework of enhanced cooperation.
However, if the Council of Ministers considers that any conditions of participation have not been
fulfilled, it shall indicate the arrangements to be adopted to fulfil those conditions and shall set a deadline for re-examining the request for participation.
For the purposes of this paragraph, the Council of Ministers shall act in accordance with Article I-43(3).

Article III-327
Expenditure resulting from implementation of enhanced cooperation, other than administrative
costs entailed for the Institutions, shall be borne by the participating Member States, unless all
members of the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously after consulting the European Parliament,
decide otherwise.

Article III-328
Where a provision of the Constitution which may be applied in the context of enhanced cooperation
stipulates that the Council of Ministers shall act unanimously, the Council of Ministers, acting
unanimously in accordance with the arrangements laid down in Article I-43(3), may, on its own
initiative, decide to act by qualified majority.
Where a provision of the Constitution which may be applied in the context of enhanced cooperation
stipulates that the Council of Ministers shall adopt European laws or framework laws under a
special legislative procedure, the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously in accordance with the
arrangements laid down in Article I-43(3), may, on its own initiative, decide to act under the
ordinary legislative procedure. The Council of Ministers shall act after consulting the European
Parliament.

Article III-329
The Council of Ministers and the Commission shall ensure the consistency of activities undertaken
in the context of enhanced cooperation and the consistency of such activities with the policies of the Union, and shall cooperate to that end.

TITLE VII. COMMON PROVISIONS

Article III-330
Taking account of the structural economic and social situation of the French overseas departments,
the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands, which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity,
small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the
permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development, the Council of
Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, shall adopt European regulations and decisions
aimed, in particular, at laying down the conditions of application of the Constitution to those
regions, including common policies. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
The measures referred to in the first paragraph concern in particular areas such as customs and trade policies, fiscal policy, free zones, agriculture and fisheries policies, conditions for supply of raw materials and essential consumer goods, State aids and conditions of access to structural funds and to horizontal Union programmes.
The Council of Ministers shall adopt the measures referred to in the first paragraph taking into
account the special characteristics and constraints of the outermost regions without undermining the integrity and the coherence of the Union legal order, including the internal market and common
policies.

Article III-331
The Constitution shall in no way prejudice the rules in Member States governing the system of
property ownership.

Article III-332
In each of the Member States, the Union shall enjoy the most extensive legal capacity accorded to
legal persons under their laws; it may, in particular, acquire or dispose of movable and immovable
property and may be a party to legal proceedings. To this end, the Union shall be represented by
the Commission. However, it shall be represented by each of the Institutions, by virtue of their
administrative autonomy, in matters relating to their respective operation.

Article III-333
The Staff Regulations of officials and the Conditions of Employment of other servants of the Union
shall be laid down by a European law. It shall be adopted after consultation of the Institutions
concerned.

Article III-334
The Commission may, within the limits and under conditions laid down by a European regulation or
decision adopted by a simple majority by the Council of Ministers, collect any information and
carry out any checks required for the performance of the tasks entrusted to it.

Article III-335
1.
Without prejudice to Article 5 of the Protocol on the Statute of the European System of
Central Banks and of the European Central Bank, measures for the production of statistics shall be
laid down by a European law or framework law where necessary for the performance of the Union's
activities.
2.
The production of statistics shall conform to impartiality, reliability, objectivity, scientific
independence, cost-effectiveness and statistical confidentiality; it shall not entail excessive burdens on economic operators.

Article III-336
The members of the Union's Institutions, the members of committees, and the officials and other
servants of the Union shall be required, even after their duties have ceased, not to disclose
information of the kind covered by the obligation of professional secrecy, in particular information about undertakings, their business relations or their cost components.

Article III-337
The Union's contractual liability shall be governed by the law applicable to the contract in question.
In the case of non-contractual liability, the Union shall, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member States, make good any damage caused by its Institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties.
The second paragraph shall apply under the same conditions to damage caused by the European
Central Bank or by its servants in the performance of their duties.
The personal liability of its servants towards the Union shall be governed by the provisions laid
down in their Staff Regulations or in the Conditions of Employment applicable to them.

Article III-338
The seat of the Union's Institutions shall be determined by common accord of the governments of
the Member States.

Article III-339
The Council of Ministers shall adopt unanimously a European regulation laying down the rules
governing the languages of the Union's Institutions, without prejudice to the Statute of the Court of Justice.

Article III-340
The Union shall enjoy in the territories of the Member States such privileges and immunities as are
necessary for the performance of its tasks, under the conditions laid down in the Protocol of
8 April 1965 on the privileges and immunities of the European Communities. The same shall apply
to the European Central Bank and the European Investment Bank.

Article III-341
The rights and obligations arising from agreements concluded before 1 January 1958 or, for
acceding States, before the date of their accession, between one or more Member States on the one
hand, and one or more third countries on the other, shall not be affected by the Constitution.
To the extent that such agreements are not compatible with the Constitution, the Member State or
States concerned shall take all appropriate steps to eliminate the incompatibilities established.
Member States shall, where necessary, assist each other to this end and shall, where appropriate,
adopt a common attitude.
In applying the agreements referred to in the first paragraph, Member States shall take into account the fact that the advantages accorded under the Constitution by each Member State form an integral part of the Union and are thereby inseparably linked with the creation of common Institutions, the conferring of powers upon them and the granting of the same advantages by all the other Member States.

Article III-342
1.
The Constitution shall not preclude the application of the following rules:
(a)
no Member State shall be obliged to supply information the disclosure of which it considers
contrary to the essential interests of its security;
(b)
any Member State may take such steps as it considers necessary for the protection of the
essential interests of its security which are connected with the production of or trade in arms,
munitions and war material; such steps shall not adversely affect the conditions of
competition in the internal market regarding products which are not intended for specifically
military purposes.
2.
The Council of Ministers, on a proposal from the Commission, may unanimously adopt a
European decision making changes to the list, which it drew up on 15 April 1958, of the products to
which the provisions of paragraph 1(b) apply.

PART IV. GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS

Article IV-1. The symbols of the Union (*)
The flag of the Union shall be a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background.
The anthem of the Union shall be based on the Ode to Joy from the Ninth Symphony by
Ludwig van Beethoven.
The motto of the Union shall be: United in diversity.
The currency of the Union shall be the euro.
9 May shall be celebrated throughout the Union as Europe day.

(*) The Convention considers that this Article would be better situated in Part I.

Article IV-2. Repeal of earlier Treaties
The Treaty establishing the European Community, the Treaty on European Union and the acts and
treaties which have supplemented or amended them and are listed in the Protocol annexed to the
Treaty establishing the Constitution shall be repealed as from the date of entry into force of the
Treaty establishing the Constitution.

Article IV-3. Legal continuity in relation to the European Community and the European Union
The European Union shall succeed to all the rights and obligations of the European Community and
of the Union, whether internal or resulting from international agreements, which arose before the
entry into force of the Treaty establishing the Constitution by virtue of previous treaties, protocols and acts, including all the assets and liabilities of the Community and of the Union, and their archives.
The provisions of the acts of the Institutions of the Union, adopted by virtue of the treaties and acts mentioned in the first paragraph, shall remain in force under the conditions laid down in the
Protocol annexed to the Treaty establishing the Constitution. The case-law of the Court of Justice
of the European Communities shall be maintained as a source of interpretation of Union law.

Article IV-4. Scope
1.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall apply to the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom
of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the
French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of
the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Finland, the
Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, ...
2.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall apply to the French overseas departments,
the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands in accordance with Article III-329 of Part III.
3.
The special arrangements for association set out in Title IV of Part III of the Treaty
establishing the Constitution shall apply to the overseas countries and territories listed in
Annex II to the TEC.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall not apply to overseas countries and territories having
special relations with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which are not
included in that list.
4.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall apply to the European territories for whose
external relations a Member State is responsible.
5.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall apply to the Åland Islands in accordance with
the provisions set out in Protocol 2 to the Act concerning the conditions of accession of the
Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden.
6.
Notwithstanding the preceding paragraphs:
(a)
the Treaty establishing the Constitution shall not apply to the Faeroe Islands;
(b)
the Treaty establishing the Constitution shall not apply to the sovereign base areas of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus;
(c)
the Treaty establishing the Constitution shall apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
only to the extent necessary to ensure the implementation of the arrangements for those
islands set out in the Treaty concerning the accession of new Member States to the European
Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community, signed on
22 January 1972.

Article IV-5. Regional unions
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall not preclude the existence or completion of
regional unions between Belgium and Luxembourg, or between Belgium, Luxembourg and
the Netherlands, to the extent that the objectives of these regional unions are not attained by
application of the said Treaty.

Article IV-6. Protocols
The protocols annexed to this Treaty shall form an integral part thereof.

Article IV-7 Procedure for revising the Treaty establishing the Constitution
1.
The government of any Member State, the European Parliament or the Commission may
submit to the Council of Ministers proposals for the amendment of the Treaty establishing the
Constitution. The national Parliaments of the Member States shall be notified of these proposals.
2.
If the European Council, after consulting the European Parliament and the Commission,
adopts by a simple majority a decision in favour of examining the proposed amendments, the
President of the European Council shall convene a Convention composed of representatives of the
national Parliaments of the Member States, of the Heads of State or Government of the Member
States, of the European Parliament and of the Commission. The European Central Bank shall also
be consulted in the case of institutional changes in the monetary area. The European Council may
decide by a simple majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, not to convene
the Convention should this not be justified by the extent of the proposed amendments. In the latter
case, the European Council shall define the terms of reference for the conference of representatives of the governments of the Member States.
The Convention shall examine the proposals for amendments and shall adopt by consensus a
recommendation to the conference of representatives of the governments of the Member States
provided for in paragraph 3.
3.
The conference of representatives of the governments of the Member States shall be convened
by the President of the Council of Ministers for the purpose of determining by common accord the
amendments to be made to the Treaty establishing the Constitution.
The amendments shall enter into force after being ratified by all the Member States in accordance
with their respective constitutional requirements.
4.
If, two years after the signature of the treaty amending the Treaty establishing the
Constitution, four fifths of the Member States have ratified it and one or more Member States have
encountered difficulties in proceeding with ratification, the matter shall be referred to the European Council.

Article IV-8. Adoption, ratification and entry into force of the Treaty establishing the Constitution
1.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties
in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. The instruments of ratification
shall be deposited with the Government of the Italian Republic.
2.
The Treaty establishing the Constitution shall enter into force on ...., provided that all the
instruments of ratification have been deposited, or, failing that, on the first day of the month
following the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the last signatory State to take this step.

Article IV-9. Duration
The Treaty establishing the Constitution is concluded for an unlimited period.

Article IV-10. Languages (*)
The Treaty establishing the Constitution, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch,
English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Czech,
Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Maltese, Polish, Slovak and Slovenian languages, the
texts in each of these languages being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the
Government of the Italian Republic, which will transmit a certified copy to each of the governments
of the other signatory States.

(*) To be adjusted in accordance with the Act of Accession.




PROTOCOL ON THE ROLE OF NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS
IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

RECALLING that the way in which individual national Parliaments scrutinise their own governments in relation to the activities of the Union is a matter for the particular constitutional organisation and practice of each Member State,

DESIRING, however, to encourage greater involvement of national Parliaments in the activities of
the European Union and to enhance their ability to express their views on legislative proposals as
well as on other matters which may be of particular interest to them,

HAVE AGREED UPON the following provisions, which shall be annexed to the Constitution:

I. Information for Member States' national Parliaments
1.
All Commission consultation documents (green and white papers and communications)
shall be forwarded directly by the Commission to Member States' national Parliaments
upon publication. The Commission shall also send Member States' national Parliaments
the annual legislative programme as well as any other instrument of legislative planning
or policy strategy that it submits to the European Parliament and to the Council of
Ministers, at the same time as to those Institutions.
2.
All legislative proposals sent to the European Parliament and to the Council of
Ministers shall simultaneously be sent to Member States' national Parliaments.
3.
Member States' national Parliaments may send to the Presidents of the European
Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission a reasoned opinion on
whether a legislative proposal complies with the principle of subsidiarity, according to
the procedure laid down in the Protocol on the application of the principles of
subsidiarity and proportionality.
4.
A six-week period shall elapse between a legislative proposal being made available by
the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Member
States' national Parliaments in the official languages of the European Union and the date
when it is placed on an agenda for the Council of Ministers for its adoption or for
adoption of a position under a legislative procedure, subject to exceptions on grounds of
urgency, the reasons for which shall be stated in the act or position of the Council of
Ministers. Save in urgent cases for which due reasons have been given, no agreement
may be established on a legislative proposal during those six weeks. A ten-day period
shall elapse between the placing of a proposal on the agenda for the Council of
Ministers and the adoption of a position of the Council of Ministers.
5.
The agendas for and the outcome of meetings of the Council of Ministers, including the
minutes of meetings where the Council of Ministers is deliberating on legislative
proposals, shall be transmitted directly to Member States' national Parliaments, at the
same time as to Member States' governments.
6.
When the European Council intends to make use of the provision of Article I-24(4),
first subparagraph of the Constitution, national Parliaments shall be informed in
advance.
When the European Council intends to make use of the provision of Article I-24(4),
second subparagraph of the Constitution, national Parliaments shall be informed at least
four months before any decision is taken.
7.
The Court of Auditors shall send its annual report to Member States' national
Parliaments, for information, at the same time as to the European Parliament and to the
Council of Ministers.
8.
In the case of bicameral national Parliaments, these provisions shall apply to both
chambers.

II. Interparliamentary cooperation
9.
The European Parliament and the national Parliaments shall together determine how
interparliamentary cooperation may be effectively and regularly organised and
promoted within the European Union.
10.
The Conference of European Affairs Committees may submit any contribution it deems
appropriate for the attention of the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and
the Commission. That Conference shall in addition promote the exchange of
information and best practice between Member States' Parliaments and the European
Parliament, including their special committees. The Conference may also organise
interparliamentary conferences on specific topics, in particular to debate matters of
common foreign and security policy and of common security and defence policy.
Contributions from the Conference shall in no way bind national Parliaments or
prejudge their positions.




PROTOCOL ON THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF SUBSIDIARITY AND PROPORTIONALITY

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

WISHING to ensure that decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizens of the Union,

RESOLVED to establish the conditions for the application of the principles of subsidiarity and
proportionality, as enshrined in Article I-9 of the Constitution, and to establish a system for
monitoring the application of those principles by the Institutions,

HAVE AGREED UPON the following provisions, which shall be annexed to the Constitution:

1.
Each Institution shall ensure constant respect for the principles of subsidiarity and
proportionality, as laid down in Article I-9 of the Constitution.
2.
Before proposing legislative acts, the Commission shall consult widely. Such consultations
shall, where appropriate, take into account the regional and local dimension of the action
envisaged. In cases of exceptional urgency, the Commission shall not conduct such
consultations. It shall give reasons for the decision in its proposal.
3.
The Commission shall send all its legislative proposals and its amended proposals to
the national Parliaments of the Member States at the same time as to the Union legislator.
Upon adoption, legislative resolutions of the European Parliament and positions of the
Council of Ministers shall be sent to the national Parliaments of the Member States.
4.
The Commission shall justify its proposal with regard to the principles of subsidiarity and
proportionality. Any legislative proposal should contain a detailed statement making it
possible to appraise compliance with the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality.
This statement should contain some assessment of the proposal's financial impact and, in the
case of a framework law, of its implications for the rules to be put in place by Member States,
including, where necessary, the regional legislation. The reasons for concluding that a Union
objective can be better achieved at Union level must be substantiated by qualitative and,
wherever possible, quantitative indicators. The Commission shall take account of the need
for any burden, whether financial or administrative, falling upon the Union, national
governments, regional or local authorities, economic operators and citizens, to be minimised
and commensurate with the objective to be achieved.
5.
Any national Parliament or any chamber of a national Parliament of a Member State may,
within six weeks from the date of transmission of the Commission's legislative proposal, send
to the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission a
reasoned opinion stating why it considers that the proposal in question does not comply with
the principle of subsidiarity. It will be for each national Parliament or each chamber of a
national Parliament to consult, where appropriate, regional parliaments with legislative
powers.
6.
The European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Commission shall take account of
the reasoned opinions issued by Member States' national Parliaments or by a chamber of a
national Parliament.
The national Parliaments of Member States with unicameral Parliamentary systems shall have
two votes, while each of the chambers of a bicameral Parliamentary system shall have one
vote.
Where reasoned opinions on a Commission proposal's non-compliance with the principle of
subsidiarity represent at least one third of all the votes allocated to the Member States'
national Parliaments and their chambers, the Commission shall review its proposal.
This threshold shall be at least a quarter in the case of a Commission proposal or an initiative
emanating from a group of Member States under the provisions of Article III-165 of the
Constitution on the area of freedom, security and justice.
After such review, the Commission may decide to maintain, amend or withdraw its proposal.
The Commission shall give reasons for its decision.
7.
The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction to hear actions on grounds of infringement of the
principle of subsidiarity by a legislative act, brought in accordance with the rules laid down in
Article III-270 of the Constitution by Member States, or notified by them in accordance with
their legal order on behalf of their national Parliament or a chamber of it.
In accordance with the same Article of the Constitution, the Committee of the Regions may
also bring such actions as regards legislative acts for the adoption of which the Constitution
provides that it be consulted.
8.
The Commission shall submit each year to the European Council, the European Parliament,
the Council of Ministers and the national Parliaments of the Member States a report on the
application of Article I-9 of the Constitution. This annual report shall also be forwarded to
the Committee of the Regions and to the Economic and Social Committee.



PROTOCOL ON THE REPRESENTATION OF CITIZENS IN THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE WEIGHTING OF VOTES IN THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

HAVE ADOPTED the following provisions, which shall be annexed to the Treaty establishing a
Constitution for Europe:

ARTICLE 1. Provisions concerning the European Parliament
1.
Throughout the 2004-2009 parliamentary term, the number of representatives elected to the
European Parliament in each Member State shall be as follows:

Belgium 24
Czech Republic 24
Denmark 14
Germany 99
Estonia 6
Greece 24
Spain 54
France 78
Ireland 13
Italy 78
Cyprus 6
Latvia 9
Lithuania 13
Luxembourg 6
Hungary 24
Malta 5
Netherlands 27
Austria 18
Poland 54
Portugal 24
Slovenia 7
Slovakia 14
Finland 14
Sweden 19
United Kingdom 78

ARTICLE 2. Provisions concerning the weighting of votes in the European Council and the Council of Ministers
1.
The following provisions shall remain in force until 1 November 2009, without prejudice to
Article I-24 of the Constitution.
For deliberations of the European Council and of the Council of Ministers requiring a qualified majority, members' votes shall be weighted as follows:

Belgium 12
Czech Republic 12
Denmark 7
Germany 29
Estonia 4
Greece 12
Spain 27
France 29
Ireland 7
Italy 29
Cyprus 4
Latvia 4
Lithuania 7
Luxembourg 4
Hungary 12
Malta 3
Netherlands 13
Austria 10
Poland 27
Portugal 12
Slovenia 4
Slovakia 7
Finland 7
Sweden 10
United Kingdom 29

Decisions shall be adopted if there are at least 232 votes in favour representing a majority of
the members where, under the Constitution, they must be adopted on a proposal from the Commission. In other cases decisions shall be adopted if there are at least 232 votes in favour
representing at least two thirds of the members.
A member of the European Council or the Council of Ministers may request that, where a
decision is taken by the European Council or the Council of Ministers by a qualified majority,
a check is made to ensure that the Member States comprising the qualified majority represent
at least 62% of the total population of the Union. If that proves not to be the case, the
decision shall not be adopted.
2.
For subsequent accessions, the threshold referred to in paragraph 1 shall be calculated to
ensure that the qualified majority threshold expressed in votes does not exceed that resulting
from the table in the Declaration on the enlargement of the European Union in the Final Act
of the Conference which adopted the Treaty of Nice.



PROTOCOL ON THE EURO GROUP

The High Contracting Parties,

Desiring to promote conditions for stronger economic growth in Europe and, to that end, to develop
ever-closer coordination of economic policies within the euro area,

Conscious of the need to lay down special provisions for enhanced dialogue between the
Member States which have adopted the euro, pending the accession of all Member States of
the Union to the euro area,

Have agreed upon the following provisions, which are annexed to the Constitution:

Article 1
The Ministers of the Member States which have adopted the euro shall meet informally.
Such meetings shall take place, when necessary, to discuss questions related to the specific
responsibilities they share with regard to the single currency. The Commission and the
European Central Bank shall be invited to take part in such meetings, which shall be prepared by
the representatives of the Ministers with responsibility for finance of the Member States which have adopted the euro.

Article 2
The Ministers of the Member States which have adopted the euro shall elect a president for two and
a half years, by a majority of those Member States.



PROTOCOL AMENDING THE EURATOM TREATY

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

RECALLING the necessity that the provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community should continue to have full legal effect,

DESIROUS however to adapt that Treaty to the new rules established by the Treaty establishing a
Constitution for Europe, in particular in the institutional and financial fields,

HAVE ADOPTED the following provisions, which are annexed to the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe and amend the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community as follows:

Article 1
Article 3 shall be repealed.

Article 2
The heading of Title III "Institutional provisions" shall be replaced by the following:
"Institutional and financial provisions".

Article 3
1. Article 107 shall be replaced by the following: "Article 107 The institutional and financial provisions of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (Articles I-18 to I-38, Articles I-52 to I-55 and Articles III-227 to III-316) and Article I-58 of that Treaty shall apply to this Treaty without prejudice to the specific provisions laid down in Articles 134, 135, 144, 145, 157, 171, 172, 174 and 176.
2. Articles 107a to 133, 136 to 143, 146 to 156, 158 to 170, 173, 173a, 175, and 177 to 183a shall
be repealed."

Article 4
The heading of Title IV "Financial provisions" shall be replaced by the following: "Specific financial provisions".

Article 5
In the third paragraph of Article 38 and the third paragraph of Article 82 the references to
Articles 141 and 142 shall be replaced by references to Articles III-265 and III-266 respectively of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.
In Article 171(2), the first paragraph of Article 175, and Article 176(3) the references to Article 183 shall be replaced by references to Article III-318 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.
In Article 172(4) the reference to Article 177(5) shall be replaced by a reference to Article III-310 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.
In the last paragraph of Article 18 and in Article 83(2) the references to Article 164 shall be
replaced by references to Article III-307 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.
In Articles 38 and 82 the word "directive" shall be replaced by "European decision".
In the Treaty the word "decision" shall be replaced by "European decision".

Article 6
Article 190 shall be replaced by the following:
"The rules governing the languages of the Institutions shall, without prejudice to the provisions
contained in the Statute of the Court of Justice, be determined by the Council of Ministers, acting
unanimously".

Article 7
Article 198 shall be amended as follows:
"(a) This Treaty shall not apply to the Faeroe Islands".

Article 8
Article 201 shall be amended as follows:
"The Community shall establish close cooperation with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development, the details of which shall be determined by common accord".

Article 9
Article 206 shall be amended as follows:
"The Community may conclude with one or more States or international organisations agreements
establishing an association involving reciprocal rights and obligations, common action and special
procedures.
These agreements shall be concluded by the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously after
consulting the European Parliament.
Where such agreements call for amendments to this Treaty, these amendments shall first be adopted
in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article IV-7 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.".



DECLARATION attached to the Protocol on the representation of citizens in the European Parliament and the weighting of votes in the European Council and the Council of Ministers

The common position which will be taken by the Member States of the European Union at the
conferences on the accession of Romania and/or Bulgaria regarding the allocation of seats in the
European Parliament and the weighting of votes in the European Council and the Council of
Ministers shall be as follows. If the accession to the European Union of Romania and/or Bulgaria
takes place before the entry into force of the European Council decision foreseen in Article I-19(2) of the Constitution, the number of their elected representatives to the European Parliament shall be calculated on the basis of the figures of 33 and 17 respectively, corrected according to the same formula as that which determined the number of representatives in the European Parliament for each Member State as indicated in the Protocol on the representation of citizens in the European Parliament and the weighting of votes in the European Council and the Council of Ministers. The Treaty of Accession to the European Union may, by way of derogation from Article I-19(2) of the Constitution, stipulate that the number of members of the European Parliament may temporarily exceed 736 for the remainder of the 2004 to 2009 Parliamentary term.
Without prejudice to Article I-24(2) of the Constitution, the weighting of the votes of Romania and
Bulgaria in the European Council and the Council of Ministers shall be 14 and 10 respectively until
1 November 2009. At the time of each accession, the threshold referred to in the Protocol on the
representation of citizens in the European Parliament and the weighting of votes in the
European Council and the Council of Ministers shall be decided by the Council of Ministers.



DECLARATION ON THE CREATION OF A EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE

"To assist the future Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, introduced in Article I-27 of the
Constitution, to perform his or her duties, the Convention agrees on the need for the Council of
Ministers and the Commission to agree, without prejudice to the rights of the European Parliament,
to establish under the Minister's authority one joint service (European External Action Service)
composed of officials from relevant departments of the General Secretariat of the Council of
Ministers and of the Commission and staff seconded from national diplomatic services.
The staff of the Union's delegations, as defined in Article III-230, shall be provided from this joint service.
The Convention is of the view that the necessary arrangements for the establishment of the joint
service should be made within the first year after entry into force of the Treaty establishing a
Constitution for Europe."



DECLARATION
IN THE FINAL ACT OF SIGNATURE OF THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE CONSTITUTION

If, two years after the signature of the Treaty establishing the Constitution, four fifths of the
Member States have ratified it and one or more Member States have encountered difficulties in
proceeding with ratification, the matter will be referred to the European Council.